Failure in Cardiac Action: Comparing Humans, Dogs, Cats, and Horses

  • Claudia Stöllberger
  • Mateo Markovic


The heart is a central organ keeping the blood flow going, thereby providing oxygenation of peripheral tissues. An overview is given here on the most important heart diseases, comparing among humans and animals, especially cats and dogs. Whereas in humans cardiac diseases due to long-standing arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis represent the well-known most important death causes, in animals the disease is less recognized by the public and often occurs silent. In humans, the prevalence of diseases of the cardiovascular system varies according to the socioeconomic conditions of a geographic region: Whereas rheumatic heart diseases and cardiomyopathies due to infection and malnutrition are more prevalent in developing countries, arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis are more prevalent in industrial countries. In animals, the most frequent diseases of the cardiovascular system comprise chronic degenerative valve disease (endocardiosis), dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in cats. In humans, arterial hypertension is frequently primary, whereas in animals secondary hypertension due to underlying systemic diseases is more frequent than primary hypertension.


Atrial Fibrillation Arterial Hypertension Mitral Regurgitation Tricuspid Regurgitation Rheumatic Heart Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hospital RudolfstiftungViennaAustria
  2. 2.Division of Internal Medicine of Small Animals, Department for Small Animals and HorsesUniversity of Veterinary Medicine ViennaViennaAustria

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