Injectable Stimulators Based on Rectification of High Frequency Current Bursts: Power Efficiency of 2 mm Thick Prototypes

  • Laura Becerra-Fajardo
  • Roser Garcia-Arnau
  • Antoni Ivorra
Conference paper
Part of the Biosystems & Biorobotics book series (BIOSYSROB, volume 15)


To overcome the miniaturization bottleneck imposed by existing power generation/transfer technologies for implantable stimulators, we have proposed a heterodox electrical stimulation method based on local rectification of high frequency (≥1 MHz) current bursts delivered through superficial electrodes. We have reported 2 mm thick addressable injectable stimulators, made of off-the-shelf components, that operate according to this principle. Since a significant amount of high frequency power is wasted by Joule heating, the method exhibits poor energy efficiency. In here we have performed a numerical case study in which the presence of the above implant prototypes is simulated in an anatomically realistic leg model. The results from this study indicate that, despite low power transfer efficiency (~0.05 %), the power consumed by the external high frequency current generator is low enough (<4 W) to grant the use of small portable batteries.



L. Becerra-Fajardo’s research is supported by a PRC fellowship from the Universitat Pompeu Fabra. A. Ivorra’s research was supported by a Marie Curie grant (IRG 256376) from the European Commission.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Becerra-Fajardo
    • 1
  • Roser Garcia-Arnau
    • 1
  • Antoni Ivorra
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Information and Communication TechnologiesUniversitat Pompeu FabraBarcelonaSpain

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