Building Urban LOD for Solving Illegally Parked Bicycles in Tokyo

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9982)


The illegal parking of bicycles is an urban problem in Tokyo and other urban areas. The purpose of this study was to sustainably build Linked Open Data (LOD) for the illegally parked bicycles and to support the problem solving by raising social awareness, in cooperation with the Bureau of General Affairs of Tokyo. We first extracted information on the problem factors and designed LOD schema for illegally parked bicycles. Then we collected pieces of data from Social Networking Service (SNS) and websites of municipalities to build the illegally parked bicycle LOD (IPBLOD) with more than 200,000 triples. We then estimated the missing data in the LOD based on the causal relations from the problem factors. As a result, the number of illegally parked bicycles can be inferred with 70.9 % accuracy. Finally, we published the complemented LOD and a Web application to visualize the distribution of illegally parked bicycles in the city. We hope this raises social attention on this issue.


Linked Open Data Urban problem Illegally parked bicycles 



This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 16K12411, 16K00419, 16K12533.


  1. 1.
    Nishi, N.: The 2nd health Japan 21: goals and challenges. J. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 28(1), 632.19 (2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ministry of Internal Affairs, Communications: Current bicycle usage and bicycle-related accident (Japanese). Accessed 10 Sept 2015
  3. 3.
    Bischof, S., Martin, C., Polleres, A., Schneider, P.: Collecting, integrating, enriching and republishing open city data as linked data. In: Arenas, M., et al. (eds.) ISWC 2015. LNCS, vol. 9367, pp. 57–75. Springer, Heidelberg (2015). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-25010-6_4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Haklay, M., Weber, P.: Openstreetmap: user-generated street maps. IEEE Pervasive Comput. 7(4), 12–18 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    King, S.F., Brown, P.: Fix my street or else: using the internet to voice local public service concerns. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, pp. 72–80 (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zook, M., Graham, M., Shelton, T., Gorman, S.: Volunteered geographic information and crowdsourcing disaster relief: a case study of the haitian earthquake. World Med. Health Policy 2(2), 7–33 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ahn, L.V.: Games with a purpose. IEEE Comput. 39(6), 92–94 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Celino, I., Cerizza, D., Contessa, S., Corubolo, M., DellAglio. D., Valle, E.D., Fumeo, S., Piccinini, F.: Urbanopoly: collection and quality assesment of geo-spatial linked data via a human computation game. In: Proceedings of the 10th Semantic Web Challenge (2012)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lopez, V., Kotoulas, S., Sbodio, M.L., Stephenson, M., Gkoulalas-Divanis, A., Aonghusa, P.M.: QuerioCity: a linked data platform for urban information management. In: Cudré-Mauroux, P., et al. (eds.) ISWC 2012. LNCS, vol. 7650, pp. 148–163. Springer, Heidelberg (2012). doi:10.1007/978-3-642-35173-0_10 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barbieri, D.F., Ceri, S.: C-SPARQL: SPARQL for continuous querying. In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on World Wide Web, pp. 1061–1062 (2012)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Egami, S., Kawamura, T., Sei, Y., Tahara, Y., Ohsuga, A.: Visualization of open urban data for illegally parked bicycles. In: CompleXity: Technology for Complex Urban Systems in the 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (2016)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mizoguchi, R., Ikeda, M., Seta, K., Vanwelkenhuysen, J.: Ontology for modeling the world from problem solving perspectives. In: Proceedings of the 1995 International Joint Conference on AI (IJCAI) Workshop on Basic Ontological Issues in Knowledge Sharing, pp. 1–12 (1995)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Auer, S., Bizer, C., Kobilarov, G., Lehmann, J., Cyganiak, R., Ives, Z.: DBpedia: a nucleus for a web of open data. In: Aberer, K., et al. (eds.) ASWC/ISWC -2007. LNCS, vol. 4825, pp. 722–735. Springer, Heidelberg (2007). doi:10.1007/978-3-540-76298-0_52 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jenks, G.F.: The data model concept in statistical mapping. Int. Yearb. Cartography 7(1), 186–190 (1967)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hwang, S., Yu, D.: GPS location improvement of smartphones using built in sensors. Int. J. Smart Home 6(3), 1–8 (2012)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stadler, C., Lehmann, J., Höffner, K., Auer, S.: LinkedGeoData: a core for a web of SpatialOpen data. Seman. Web J. 3(4), 333–354 (2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shusaku Egami
    • 1
  • Takahiro Kawamura
    • 1
    • 2
  • Akihiko Ohsuga
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of Informatics and EngineeringThe University of Electro-CommunicationsTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Japan Science and Technology AgencyTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations