Biodiversity of Benthic Macro- and Microalgae from Svalbard with Special Focus on Kongsfjorden

  • Stein FredriksenEmail author
  • Ulf Karsten
  • Inka Bartsch
  • Jana Woelfel
  • Miriam Koblowsky
  • Rhena Schumann
  • Siri Røang Moy
  • Robert S. Steneck
  • Józef M. Wiktor
  • Haakon Hop
  • Christian Wiencke
Part of the Advances in Polar Ecology book series (AVPE, volume 2)


Several floristic studies on macroalgae of Svalbard have been published, but as access to the archipelago is difficult, these studies are scattered and often only cover single sites and habitats. Kongsfjorden, Isfjorden and Hornsund are the three most comprehensively investigated areas, and most of the species information comes from these three fjords. Quantitative and structured sublittoral sampling has been undertaken along depth transects and along the fjord only in Kongsfjorden. Clear differences are found from the outer to the inner parts of the fjord. Macroalgal biodiversity data from Kongsfjorden are presented in detail and compared to data for the whole archipelago. In total 197 species of macroalgae have been recorded for Svalbard; 84 of these occur in Kongsfjorden. The current taxonomic status of some species is discussed. Changes in the macroalgal flora during the last decades for Svalbard in general and in Kongsfjorden in particular, are summarised and possible causes discussed. Information on biodiversity of microphytobenthos is very scarce, and investigations in Kongsfjorden on benthic diatoms from soft bottom and biotic surfaces provide the first floristic information available. A total of 69 diatoms species have been identified and form a first baseline for a high-latitude fjord system. Biodiversity is relatively low compared to other sandy marine shallow water areas of temperate regions as indicated by the Shannon-Weaver index. Some data on epiphytic diatoms colonising seaweeds are available. Benthic diatoms colonise large parts of Kongsfjorden in high abundances and, in addition to macroalgae, are important as primary producers and therefore also for trophic relationships in the harsh Arctic environment.


Arctic Svalbard Kongsfjorden Macroalgae Microalgae Species diversity 



The work on microphytobenthos has been performed at the Ny-Ålesund International Arctic Environmental Research and Monitoring Facility and under the agreement on scientific cooperation between the Alfred Wegener Institute and the University of Rostock. The authors thank the crew at the AWIPEV-base in Ny-Ålesund and the German dive team (Anita Flohr, Peter Leopold, Max Schwanitz) for assistance in the field, collecting samples and further support. Sediment tubes for sampling were manufactured by Peter Kumm (Institute of Chemistry, University of Rostock). We are grateful to Agnieszka Tatarek (Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot) for counting and identifying diatom samples. Financing and logistic support of the microphytobenthic research was provided by the German Research Council (DFG, KA899/12 and KA899/15). Parts of the macroalgal sampling reported here were carried out by divers from the AWI; we are grateful for their contribution, especially to Max Schwanitz and Martin Paar. Line transects at different locations in Kongsfjorden, from inner to outer fjord, were carried out by divers from the Norwegian Polar Institute. The authors thank Joachim Bartsch for giving a final touch to the English and Sandra C. Lindstrom and Susse Wegeberg for valuable critique and comments during the review process.


  1. Abdullah M, Fredriksen S (2004) Production, respiration and exudation of dissolved organic matter by the kelp Laminaria hyperborea along the west coast of Norway. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 84:887–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adey WH, Steneck RS (2001) Thermogeography over time creates biogeographic regions: a temperature/space/time-integrated model and an abundance-weighted test for benthic marine algae. J Phycol 37:677–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agardh JG (1862) Om Spetsbergens alger. Akademisk program, Lund, 4 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Agardh JG (1868) Bidrag til kännedomen af Spetsbergens alger. K Sven Vetenskapsakad Handl 7:1–49Google Scholar
  5. Al-Handal AY, Wulff A (2008) Marine benthic diatoms from Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica. Bot Mar 51:51–68Google Scholar
  6. Athanasiadis A (2006) The genus Leptophytum (Melobesioideae, Corallinales, Rhodophyta) in NW Spitsbergen. Nord J Bot 24:469–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Athanasiadis A (2008) Two endemic coralline red algae on the northern limits of the latest glaciation. Taxon 57:223–230Google Scholar
  8. Bartsch I, Wiencke C, Laepple T (2012) Global seaweed biogeography under a changing climate: the prospected effects of temperature. In: Wiencke C, Bischof K (eds) Seaweed biology, ecological studies, vol 219. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 383–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bartsch I, Paar M, Fredriksen S, Schwanitz M, Daniel C, Hop H, Wiencke C (2016) Changes in kelp forest biomass and depth distribution in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, between 1996–1998 and 2012–2014 reflect Arctic warming. Polar Biol 39:2021–2036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beuchel F, Gulliksen B (2008) Temporal patterns of benthic community development in an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard): results of a 24-year manipulation study. Polar Biol 31:913–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beuchel F, Gulliksen B, Carroll ML (2006) Long-term patterns of rocky bottom macrobenthic community structure in an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard) in relation to climate variability (1980–2003). J Mar Syst 63:35–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bolton JJ (2010) The biogeography of kelps (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae): a global analysis with new insights from recent advances in molecular phylogenetics. Helgol Mar Res 64:263–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bonsell C, Dunton KH (2018) Long – term patterns of benthic irradiance and kelp production in the Central Beaufort Sea reveal implications of warming for Arctic inner shelves. Prog Oceanogr 162:160–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Borum J, Pedersen MF, Krause-Jensen D, Christensen PB, Nielsen K (2002) Biomass, photosynthesis and growth of Laminaria saccharina in a high-Arctic fjord, NE Greenland. Mar Biol 141:11–19Google Scholar
  15. Brodie J, Maggs CA, John DM (2007) The green seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. British Phycological Society, DunmurryGoogle Scholar
  16. Buchholz F, Werner T, Buchholz C (2012) First observation of krill spawning in the high Arctic Kongsfjorden, West Spitsbergen. Polar Biol 35:1273–1279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cahoon LB (1999) The role of benthic microalgae in neritic ecosystems. Oceanogr Mar Biol Ann Rev 37:47–86Google Scholar
  18. Campeau S, Pienitz R, Héquette A (1999) Diatoms as quantitative paleodepth indicators in coastal areas of the southeastern Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 146:67–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chenelot H, Jewett SC, Hoberg MK (2011) Macrobenthos of the nearshore Aleutian Archipelago, with emphasis on invertebrates associated with Clathromorphum nereostratum (Rhodophyta, Corallinaceae). Mar Biodivers 41:413–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Christie H, Norderhaug KM, Fredriksen S (2009) Macrophytes as habitat for fauna. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 396:221–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clark GF, Stark JS, Johnston EL, Runcie JW, Goldsworthy PM, Raymond B, Riddle MJ (2013) Light-driven tipping points in polar ecosystems. Glob Chang Biol 19:3749–3761. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cottier FR, Nilsen F, Inall ME, Gerland S, Tverberg V, Svendsen H (2007) Wintertime warming of an Arctic shelf in response to large-scale atmospheric circulation. Geophys Res Lett 34:L10607. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Coyer JA, Hoarau G, Oudot-Le Secq M-P, Stam WT, Olsen JL (2006) A mtDNA-base phylogeny of the brown algal genus Fucus (Heterokontophyta; Phaeophyta). Mol Phylogenet Evol 39:209–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cremer H (1998) Die Diatomeen der Laptevsee (Arktischer Ozean): Taxonomie und biogeographische Verbreitung. Ber Polarforsch 260:1–205Google Scholar
  25. De Brouwer JFC, de Decker EMGT, Stal LJ (2003) Distribution of extracellular carbohydrates in three intertidal mudflats in Western Europe. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 56:313–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Duggins DO, Ekman JE (1997) Is kelp detritus a good food for suspension feeders? Effects of kelp species, age and secondary metabolites. Mar Biol 128:489–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dunton KH (1985) Growth of dark-exposed Laminaria saccharina (L.) Lamour. and Laminaria solidungula J. Ag. (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 94:181–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dunton KH, Schell SH (1986) Seasonal carbon budget and growth of Laminaria solidungula in the Alaskan high Arctic. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 31:57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. El-Sabaawi R, Harrison PJ (2006) Interactive effects of irradiance and temperature on the photosynthetic physiology of the pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia granii (Bacillariophyceae) from the Northeast subarctic Pacific. J Phycol 42:778–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Florczyk I, Latala A (1989) The phytobenthos of the Hornsund fjord, SW Spitsbergen. Polar Res 7:29–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fredersdorf J, Müller R, Becker S, Wiencke C, Bischof K (2009) Interactive effects of radiation, temperature and salinity on different life history stages of the Arctic kelp Alaria esculenta (Phaeophyceae). Oecologia 160:483–492PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Fredriksen S (2003) Food web studies in a Norwegian kelp forest based on stable isotope (δ13C and δ 15N) analyses. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 260:71–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fredriksen S, Kile MR (2012) The algal vegetation in the outer part of Isfjorden, Spitsbergen: revisiting Per Svendsen’s sites 50 years later. Polar Res 31:17538. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fredriksen S, Bartsch I, Wiencke C (2014) New additions to the benthic marine flora of Kongsfjorden, western Svalbard, and comparison between 1996/1998 and 2012/2013. Bot Mar 57:203–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fredriksen S, Gabrielsen TM, Kile MR, Sivertsen K (2015) Benthic algal vegetation in Isfjorden, Svalbard. A survey of the main fjord area. Polar Res 34:25994. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gersonde R, Zielinski U (2000) The reconstruction of late quaternary Antarctic sea-ice distribution – the use of diatoms as a proxy for sea-ice. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 162:263–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Glud RN, Woelfel J, Karsten U, Kühl M, Rysgaard S (2009) Benthic microalgal production in the Arctic: applied methods and status of the current database. Bot Mar 52:559–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gómez I, Wulff A, Roleda MY, Huovinen P, Karsten U, Quartino ML, Dunton K, Wiencke C (2011) Light and temperature demands of marine benthic microalgae and seaweeds in polar regions. In: Wiencke C (ed) Biology of polar benthic algae. de Gruyter, Berlin, pp 195–220Google Scholar
  39. Gordillo FJL, Carmona R, Viñegla B, Wiencke C, Jiménez (2016) Effects of simultaneous increase in temperature and ocean acidification on biochemical composition and photosynthetic performance of common macroalgae from Kongsfjorden (Svalbard). Polar Biol 39:1993–2007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Guiry MD, Guiry GM (2018) AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. Accessed 2 May 2018
  41. Gulliksen B, Palerud R, Brattegard T, Sneli J (1999) Distribution of marine benthic macro-organisms at Svalbard (including Bear Island) and Jan Mayen. Research Report for DN 1999-4. Directorate for Nature Management, 151 ppGoogle Scholar
  42. Hanelt D, Tüg GH, Bischof K, Gross C, Lippert H, Sawall T, Wiencke C (2001) Light regime in an Arctic fjord: a study related to stratospheric ozone depletion as a basis for determination of UV effects on algal growth. Mar Biol 138:649–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hansen JR, Jenneborg JH (1996) Benthic marine algae and cyanobacteria. In: Elvebakk A, Presterud P (eds) A catalogue of Svalbard plants, fungi, algae and cyanobacteria, vol 198. Norsk Polarinst Skr, Oslo, pp 361–374Google Scholar
  44. Hasle GR, von Quillfeldt CH (1996) Marine microalgae. In: Elvebakk A, Presterud P (eds) A catalogue of Svalbard plants, fungi, algae and cyanobacteria, vol 198. Norsk Polarinst Skr, Oslo, pp 375–382Google Scholar
  45. Hasle GR, Syvertsen EE, von Quillfeldt CH (1996) Fossula arctica gen. nov., spec. nov., a marine Arctic araphid diatom. Diatom Res 11:261–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Heesch S, Pazoutova M, Moniz MBJ, Rindi F (2016) Prasiolales (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) of the Svalbard Archipelago: diversity, biogeography and description of the new genera Prasionella and Prasionema. Eur J Phycol 51:171–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hendey NI (1964) An introductory account of the smaller algae of British coastal waters. V. Bacillariophyceae (diatoms). HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  48. Hop H, Pearson T, Hegseth EN, Kovacs KM, Wiencke C, Kwasniewski S, Eiane K, Mehlum F, Gulliksen B, Wlodarska-Kowalzuk M, Lydersen C, Weslawski JM, Cochrane S, Gabrielsen GW, Leakey RJG, Lønne OJ, Zajaczkowski M, Falk-Petersen S, Kendall M, Wängberg S-Å, Bischof K, Voronkov AY, Kovaltchouk NA, Wiktor J, Poltermann M, di Prisco G, Papucci C, Gerland S (2002) The marine ecosystem of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Polar Res 21:167–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hop H, Wiencke C, Vögele B, Kovaltchouk NA (2012) Species composition, zonation, and biomass of marine benthic macroalgae in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Bot Mar 55:399–414Google Scholar
  50. Hop H, Kovaltchouk NA, Wiencke C (2016) Distribution of macroalgae in Kongsfjord, Svalbard. Polar Biol 39:2037–2051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kain JM (1971) Synopsis of biological data on Laminaria hyperborea. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 87Google Scholar
  52. Karsten U (2007) Salinity tolerance of Arctic kelps from Spitsbergen. Phycol Res 55:257–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Karsten U, Dummermuth A, Hoyer K, Wiencke C (2003) Interactive effects of ultraviolet radiation and salinity on the ecophysiology of two Arctic red algae from shallow waters. Polar Biol 26:249–258Google Scholar
  54. Karsten U, Schumann R, Rothe S, Jung I, Medlin L (2006) Temperature and light requirements for growth of two diatom species (Bacillariophyceae) isolated from an Arctic macroalga. Polar Biol 29:476–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Karsten U, Schlie C, Woelfel J, Becker B (2012) Benthic diatoms in Arctic seas – ecological functions and adaptations. Polarforsch 81:77–84Google Scholar
  56. Karsten U, Schaub I, Woelfel J, Sevilgen D, Schlie C, Becker B, Wulff A, Graeve M, Wagner H (this volume-c) Chapter 8: Living on cold substrata – new insights and approaches to study microphytobenthos ecophysiology and ecology in Kongsfjorden. In: Hop H, Wiencke C (eds) The ecosystem of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Advances in polar ecology 2. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  57. Kim JH, Chung H, Choi H-G, Kim Y (2003) Macroalgal flora of Kongsfjorden in Svalbard Islands, the Arctic. Ocean and Polar Res 25:569–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kjellman FR (1875a) Förberedande anmärkningar om algvegetationen i Mossel Bay enligt iakttagelser under vinterdragningar anställda av Svenska polarexpeditionen 1972–1873. Öfvers Kungl Svenska Vetensk-Akad Förhandl 5:59–68Google Scholar
  59. Kjellman FR (1875b) Om Spetsbergens marina, klorofyllförande thallophyter I. Bih Kungl Svenska Vetensk-Akad Handl 3:1–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kjellman FR (1877a) Om Spetsbergens marina, klorofyllförande thallophyter II. Bih Kungl Svenska Vetensk-Akad Handl 4:1–61Google Scholar
  61. Kjellman FR (1877b) Bidrag til kännedomen af Kariska hafvets algvegetation. Öfversikt Kungl Vetensk-Akad Förhandl 2:3–30Google Scholar
  62. Kjellman FR (1883) Norra Ishafvets algflora. Vega-Exped Vetensk Iakttag 3:1–431Google Scholar
  63. Kjellman FR (1893) Studier öfver Chlorophycéslägtet Acrosiphonia JG Ag och dess skandinaviska arter. Bih Kungl Svenska Vetensk-Akad Handl 3:1–114Google Scholar
  64. Kortsch S, Primicerio R, Beuchel F, Renaud PE, Rodrigues J, Lønne OJ, Gulliksen B (2012) Climate-driven regime shifts in Arctic marine benthos. PNAS 109:14052–14057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kraan S, Rueness J, Guiry MD (2001) Are North Atlantic Alaria esculenta and A. grandifolia (Alariaceae, Phaeophyceae) conspecific? Eur J Phycol 39:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Krause-Jensen D, Kühl M, Christensen PB, Borum J (2007a) Benthic primary production in young sound, northeastern Greenland. In: Rysgaard S, Glud RN (eds) Carbon cycling in Arctic marine ecosystems: case study young sound. Medd Grønland. Bioscience 58:159–174Google Scholar
  67. Krause-Jensen D, Marbà N, Olesen B, Sejr MK, Christensen PB, Rodrigues J, Renaud PE, Blasby TJS, Rysgaard S (2012) Seasonal sea ice cover as principal driver of spatial and temporal variation in depth extension and annual production of kelp in Greenland. Glob Chang Biol 18:2981–2994PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kruss A, Blondel P, Tegowski J (2012) Acoustic properties of macrophytes: Comparison of single-beam and multibeam imaging with modelling results. 11th European conference on underwater acoustics 2012. Institute of Acoustics, St Albans, pp 168–175Google Scholar
  69. Kruss A, Tegowski J, Tatarek A, Wiktor J, Blondel P (2017) Spatial distribution of macroalgae along the shores of Kongsfjorden (West Spitsbergen) using acoustic imaging. Pol Polish Res 38:205–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kucera H, Saunders GW (2008) Assigning morphological variants of Fucus (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) in Canadian waters to recognized species using DNA barcoding. Botany 86:1065–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Küpper FC, Peters AF, Shewring DM, Sayer MDJ, Mystikou A, Brown H, Azzopardi E, Dargent O, Strittmatter M, Brennan D, Asensi AO, van West P, Wilce RT (2016) Arctic marine phytobenthos of Northern Baffin Island. J Phycol 52:532–549PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lantuit H, Overduin PP, Couture N, Wetterich S, Aré F, Atkinson D, Brown J, Cherkashov G, Drozdov D, Forbes DL, Graves-Gaylord A, Grigoriev M, Hubberten H-W, Jordan J, Jorgenson T, Ødegård RS, Ogorodov S, Pollard WH, Rachold V, Sedenko S, Solomon S, Steenhuisen F, Streletskaya I, Vasiliev A (2012) The Arctic coastal dynamics database: a new classification scheme and statistics on Arctic permafrost coastlines. Estuar Coasts 35:383–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lee JB, Hayashi K, Hirata M, Kuroda E, Suzuki E, Kubo Y, Hayashi T (2006) Antiviral sulphated polysaccharide from Navicula directa, a diatom collected from deep-sea water in Toyama Bay. Biol Pharm Bull 29:2135–2139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lein TE (1984) Distribution, reproduction, and ecology of Fucus ceranoides L. (Phaeophyceae) in Norway. Sarsia 69:75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lein TE, Küfner R (1998) Marine benthosalger fra østsiden av Novaja Semlja, Karahavet 1993. IFM Report, Univ Bergen, Norway, No 10Google Scholar
  76. Leventer A (1992) Modern distribution of diatoms in sediments from the George V Coast, Antarctica. Mar Micropaleontol 19:315–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lindblom AE (1840) Förtekning öfver de på Spetsbergen och Beeren Eiland anmärkta vexter. Bot Notiser 9:153–158Google Scholar
  78. Lizotte MP (2001) The contributions of sea-ice algae to Antarctic marine primary production. Am Zool 41:57–73Google Scholar
  79. Longhi ML, Schloss IR, Wiencke C (2003) Effect of irradiance and temperature on photosynthesis and growth of two Antarctic benthic diatoms, Gyrosigma subsalinum and Odontella litigiosa. Bot Mar 46:276–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Longtin CM, Saunders GW (2015) On the utility of mucilage ducts as a taxonomic character in Laminaria and Saccharina (Phaeophyceae) – the conundrum of S. groenlandica. Phycologia 54:440–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lund S (1951) Marine algae from Jörgen Brönlunds Fjord in eastern north Greenland. Medd Grønland 128:1–26Google Scholar
  82. Lund L (2014) Morphological diversity in Laminaria digitata. MSc thesis in Marine Biology, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway, 65 ppGoogle Scholar
  83. Lüning K (1990) Seaweeds. Their environment, biogeography and ecophysiology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  84. Mann KH (2000) Ecology of coastal waters: with implications for management, 2nd edn. Blackwell Science, Malden, MAGoogle Scholar
  85. Marr JWS (1927) Plants collected during the British Arctic expedition, 1925. J Bot 65:272–277Google Scholar
  86. McDevit DC, Saunders GW (2010) A DNA barcode examination of the Laminariaceae (Phaeophyceae) in Canada reveals novel biogeographical and evolutionary insights. Phycologia 49:235–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mock T, Thomas DN (2005) Recent advances in sea ice microbiology. Environ Microbiol 7:605–619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Moy SR (2015) Littoral and sublittoral macroalgal vegetation from 8 sites around Svalbard. MSc thesis in Marine Biology, University of Oslo, Norway, 120 ppGoogle Scholar
  89. Norderhaug KM, Fredriksen S, Nygaard K (2003) Trophic importance of Laminaria hyperborea to kelp forest consumers and the importance of bacterial degradation to food quality. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 255:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. O’Kelly CJ, Bellows WK, Wysor B (2004) Phylogenetic position of Bolbocoleon piliferum (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta): evidence from reproduction, zoospore and gamete ultrastructure, and small subunit rRNA gene sequences. J Phycol 40:209–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pavlov AK, Tverberg V, Ivanov BV, Nilsen F, Falk-Petersen S, Granskog MA (2013) Warming of Atlantic water in two West Spitsbergen fjords over the last century (1912–2009). Polar Res 32:11206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pavlov A, Leu E, Hanelt D, Bartsch I, Karsten U, Hudson SR, Gallet J-C, Cottier F, Cohen JH, Berge J, Johnsen G, Maturilli M, Kowalczuk P, Sagan S, Meler J, Granskog MA (this volume-e) Chapter 5: Underwater light regime in Kongsfjorden and its ecological implications. In: Hop H, Wiencke C (eds) The ecosystem of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Advances in polar ecology 2. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  93. Pavlova O, Gerland S, Hop H (this volume-e) Chapter 4: Changes in sea-ice extent and thickness in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (2003–2016). In: Hop H, Wiencke C (eds) The ecosystem of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Advances in polar ecology 2. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  94. Pedersen PM (1976) Marine, benthic algae from southernmost Greenland. Medd Grønland 199:1–80Google Scholar
  95. Pedersen PM (2011) Grønlands Havalger. Epsilon, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  96. Peltikhina TS (2002) Distribution peculiarities and stocks of Laminaria algae in the area of Isfjord of the Spitsbergen Archipelago. In: Matishov GG, Tarasov GA (eds) The complex investigations of the Spitsbergen nature. Murmansk Biological Institute. In Russian (English Abstract), pp 168–174Google Scholar
  97. Poulin M (1991) Sea ice diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) of the Canadian Arctic. 2. A taxonomic, morphological and geographical study of Gyrosigma concilians. Nor J Bot 10:681–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Powell HT (1957) Studies in the genus Fucus L. I. Fucus distichus emend. Powell. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 36:407–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ratkova TN, Wassmann P (2005) Sea ice algae in the White and Barents Seas: composition and origin. Polar Res 24:95–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Renaud PE, Tessmann M, Evenset A, Christensen GN (2011) Benthic food-web structure of an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard). Mar Biol Res 7:13–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rice EL, Chapman ARO (1985) A numerical taxonomic study of Fucus distichus (Phaeophyta). J Mar Biol Assoc UK 65:433–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Risgaard-Petersen N, Rysgaard S, Nielsen LP, Revsbech NP (1994) Diurnal variation of dentrification and nitrification in sediments colonized by benthic microphytes. Limnol Oceanogr 39:573–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Roleda MY, Dethleff D (2011) Storm-generated sediment deposition on rocky shores: simulating burial effects on the physiology and morphology of Saccharina latissima sporophytes. Mar Biol Res 7:213–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Roleda MY, Dethleff D, Wiencke C (2008) Transient sediment load on blades of Arctic Saccharina latissima can mitigate UV radiation effect on photosynthesis. Polar Biol 31:765–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Round FE (1971) Benthic marine diatoms. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 9:83–139Google Scholar
  106. Round FE, Crawford RM, Mann DG (1990) The diatoms: biology & morphology of the genera. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  107. Rueness J (1977) Norsk algeflora. Universitetsforlaget, OsloGoogle Scholar
  108. Rysgaard S, Glud RN (2007) Carbon cycling in Arctic marine ecosystems: case study young sound. Medd Grønland. Bioscience 58Google Scholar
  109. Sabbe K, Verleyen E, Hodgson D, Vanhoutte K, Vyverman W (2003) Benthic diatom flora of freshwater and saline lakes in the Larsemann Hills and Rauer Islands, East Antarctica. Antarct Sci 15:227–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schlie C, Woelfel J, Rüdiger F, Schumann R, Karsten U (2011) Ecophysiological performance of benthic diatoms from arctic waters. In: Seckbach J, Kociolek P (eds) COLE-Cellular Origin, Life in extreme Habitats and Astrobiology, The Diatom World, vol 19, pp 425–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sevilgen DS, de Beer D, Al-Handal AY, Brey T, Polerecky L (2014) Oxygen budgets in subtidal arctic (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard) and temperate (Helgoland, North Sea) microphytobenthic communities. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 504:27–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sommerfelt C (1832) Bidrag til Spetsbergens og Beeren-Eilands flora efter herbarier, medbragt af M. Keilhau. Mag Naturv 11:232–245Google Scholar
  113. Stachura-Suchoples K, Enke N, Schlie C, Schaub I, Karsten U, Jahn R (2016) Contribution towards a morphological and molecular taxonomic reference library of benthic marine diatoms from two Arctic fjords on Svalbard (Norway). Polar Biol 39:1933–1956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Svendsen P (1957) Om algevegetasjonen på Spitsbergen. En undersøkelse av den marine algefloraen i den ytre del av Isfjorden. Cand. real thesis, University of OsloGoogle Scholar
  115. Svendsen P (1959) The algal vegetation of Spitsbergen. A survey of the marine algal flora of the outer part of Isfjorden. Nor Polarinst Skr 116:1–49Google Scholar
  116. Svendsen H, Beszczynska-Møller A, Hagen JO, Lefauconnier B, Tverberg V, Gerland S, Ørbæk JB, Bischof K, Papucci C, Zajaczkowski M, Azzolini R, Bruland OR, Wiencke C, Winther J-G, Dallmann W (2002) The physical environment of Kongsfjorden – Krossfjorden, an Arctic fjord system in Svalbard. Polar Res 21:133–166Google Scholar
  117. Sylvestre F (2009) Modern diatom distribution in the Seine and Authie Estuaries. In: Amiard-Triquet C, Rainbow PS (eds) Environmental assessment of estuarine ecosystems: a case study. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 241–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tanimura Y (1992) Distribution of diatom species in the surface sediments of Lützow-Holm Bay, Antarctica. In: Ishizaki K, Saito T (eds) Centenary of Japanese micropaleontology. Terra Scientific Publishing Co, Tokyo, pp 399–411Google Scholar
  119. Tatarek A, Wiktor J, Kendall MA (2012) The sublittoral macroflora of Hornsund. Polar Res 31:18900. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Taylor WR (1954) The cryptogamic flora of the Arctic. II. Algae: non – planktonic. Bot Rev 20:363–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Taylor F, McMinn A, Franklin D (1997) Distribution of diatoms in surface sediments of Prydz Bay, Antarctica. Mar Micropaleo 32:209–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Teichert S, Wolkerling W, Rüggeberg A, Wisshak M, Piepenburg D, Meyerhöfer M, Form A, Büdenbender J, Freiwald A (2012) Rhodolith beds (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) and their physical and biological environment at 80°31′N in Nordkappbukta (Nordaustlandet, Svalbard archipelago, Norway). Phycologia 51:371–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Teichert S, Wolkerling W, Rüggeberg A, Wisshak M, Piepenburg D, Meyerhöfer M, Form A, Freiwald A (2014) Arctic rhodolith beds and their environment. Facies 60:15–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. van den Hoek C (1984) World-wide longitudinal seaweed distribution patterns and their possible causes, as illustrated by the distribution of rhodophytan genera. Helgoländer Meeresun 38:227–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Vilbaste S, Sundbäck K, Nilsson C, Truu J (2000) Distribution of benthic diatoms in the littoral zone of the Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea. Eur J Phycol 35:373–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Vinogradova KL (1995a) Seaweeds. In: Klekowski RZ, Weslawski JM (eds) Atlas of marine flora of southern Spitsbergen. Polish Academy of Sciences, GdanskGoogle Scholar
  127. Vinogradova KL (1995b) The checklist of the marine algae from Spitsbergen. Bot Z SSR 80:50–61Google Scholar
  128. Vinogradova KL, Schoschina EV (1993) Algae. In: Matishov GG, Galaktionov KV, Denisov VV, Drobysheva SS, Chinarina AD, Timofeeva SV (eds) Environment and ecosystems of Franz Josef Land (Archipelago and shelf). Kola Scientific Centre/Academy of Science of Russia, Murmanskaya Oblast/Moscow, pp 109–116Google Scholar
  129. Volent Z, Johnsen G, Sigernes F (2007) Kelp forest mapping by use of airborne hyperspectral imager. J Appl Remote Sens 1:011503. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. von Quillfeldt CH (2000) Common diatom species in Arctic spring blooms: their distribution and abundance. Bot Mar 43:499–516Google Scholar
  131. von Quillfeldt CH (2004) The diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus and its potential as an indicator species for cold water rather than for sea ice. Vie et Milieu 54:137–143Google Scholar
  132. Voronkov A, Hop H, Gulliksen B (2012) Diversity of hard-bottom fauna relative to environmental gradients in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Polar Res 32. Suppl Table S1
  133. Vyverman W, Verleyen E, Sabbe K, Vanhoutte K, Sterken M, Hodgson DA, Mann DG, Juggins S, Van der Vijer B, Jones V, Flower R, Roberts D, Chepurnov VA, Kilroy C, Vanormelingen P, De Wever A (2007) Historical processes constrain patterns in global diatom diversity. Ecology 88:1924–1931PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Weslawski JM, Wiktor JM, Zajaczkowski M, Swerpel S (1993) Intertidal zone of Svalbard. 1. Macroorganisms distribution and biomass. Polar Biol 13:73–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Weslawski JM, Zajaczkowski M, Wiktor J, Szymelfenig M (1997) Intertidal zone of Svalbard. 3. Littoral of a subarctic, oceanic island: Bjornoya. Polar Biol 18:45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Weslawski JM, Wiktor J Jr, Kotwicki L (2010) Increase in biodiversity in the arctic rocky littoral, Sorkappland, Svalbard, after 20 years of climate warming. Mar Biodivers 40:123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Weslawski JM, Kendall MA, Wlodarska-Kowalczuk M, Iken K, Kedra M, Legezynska J, Sejr MK (2011) Climate change effects on Arctic fjord and coastal macrobenthic diversity – observations and predictions. Mar Biodivers 41:71–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wiencke C, Vögele B, Kovaltchouk NA, Hop H (2004) Species composition and zonation of marine benthic macroalgae at Hansneset in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Ber Polarforsch Meeresforsch 492:55–62Google Scholar
  139. Wiencke C, Clayton MN, Gómez I, Iken K, Lüder UH, Amsler CD, Karsten U, Hanelt D, Bischof K, Dunton K (2007) Life strategy, ecophysiology and ecology of seaweeds in polar waters. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 6:95–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Wiencke C, Gómez I, Dunton K (2011) Phenology and seasonal physiological performance of polar seaweeds. In: Wiencke C (ed) Biology of polar benthic algae. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin/New York, pp 181–194Google Scholar
  141. Wiktor JM, Okolodkov JB (1995) Phytoplankton. In: Klekowski RZ, Weslawski JM (eds) Atlas of Southern Spitsbergen marine flora. Institute of Oceanology, Sopot, pp 9–291Google Scholar
  142. Wiktor JM, Wojciechowska K (2005) Differences in taxonomic composition of summer phytoplankton in two fjords of West Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Pol Polar Res 26:259–268Google Scholar
  143. Wilce RT (1994) The Arctic subtidal as habitat for macrophytes. In: Lobban CS, Harrison PJ (eds) Seaweed ecology and physiology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/ New York/Oakleigh, pp 89–92Google Scholar
  144. Wilce RT (2016) The “Arctic Stamp”, its imprint on an endangered marine flora – the Arctic benthic algal flora and its environment seen from 65 years of Arctic research. Perspect Phycol 3:155–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Woelfel J, Schumann R, Leopold P, Wiencke C, Karsten U (2009) Microphytobenthic biomass along gradients of physical conditions in Arctic Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Bot Mar 52:573–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Woelfel J, Schumann R, Peine F, Flohr A, Flohr A, Kruss A, Tegowski J, Blondel P, Wiencke C, Karsten U (2010) Microphytobenthos of Arctic Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway): biomass and potential primary production along the shore line. Polar Biol 33:1239–1253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Woelfel J, Eggert A, Karsten U (2014) Marginal impacts of rising temperature on Arctic benthic microalgae production based on in situ measurements and modelled estimates. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 501:25–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Woods DC, Fletcher RL (1991) Studies on the strength of adhesion of some common marine fouling diatoms. Biofouling 3:287–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Wulff A, Iken K, Quartino ML, Al-Handal A, Wiencke C, Clayton MN (2011) Biodiversity, biogeography and zonation of marine benthic micro- and macroalgae in the Arctic and Antarctic. In: Wiencke C (ed) Biology of polar benthic algae. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin/New York, pp 23–52Google Scholar
  150. Zacher K, Rautenberger R, Hanelt D, Wulff A, Wiencke C (2011) The abiotic environment of polar benthic algae. In: Wiencke C (ed) Biology of polar benthic algae. de Gruyter, Berlin, pp 9–22Google Scholar
  151. Zacher K, Bernard M, Bartsch I, Wiencke C (2016) Recruitment of Arctic kelp species under multifactorial global change scenarios. Polar Biol 39:2009–2020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Zajaczkowski M (2008) Sediment supply and fluxes in glacial and outwash fjords, Kongsfjorden and Adventfjorden, Svalbard. Polish Polar Res 29:59–72Google Scholar
  153. Zinova ES (1929) Vodorosli Novoj Zemli. Gosudarstvenneyi godrologiceskij institut. Otdel nyj ottisk iz “Issledovanija Morej SSSR” Vyp 10:41–12Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stein Fredriksen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ulf Karsten
    • 2
  • Inka Bartsch
    • 3
  • Jana Woelfel
    • 4
  • Miriam Koblowsky
    • 2
  • Rhena Schumann
    • 2
  • Siri Røang Moy
    • 5
  • Robert S. Steneck
    • 6
  • Józef M. Wiktor
    • 7
  • Haakon Hop
    • 8
    • 9
  • Christian Wiencke
    • 3
  1. 1.Section for Aquatic Biology and Toxicology, Department of BiosciencesUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  2. 2.Institute of Biological Sciences, Applied Ecology and PhycologyUniversity of RostockRostockGermany
  3. 3.Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine ResearchBremerhavenGermany
  4. 4.Department of Aquatic Ecology, Institute of Biological SciencesUniversity of RostockRostockGermany
  5. 5.Department of BiosciencesUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  6. 6.Darling Marine CenterWalpoleUSA
  7. 7.Institute of OceanologyPolish Academy of SciencesSopotPoland
  8. 8.Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram CentreTromsøNorway
  9. 9.Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and EconomicsUiT The Arctic University of NorwayTromsøNorway

Personalised recommendations