Modeling Directly Executable Processes for Healthcare Professionals with XMDD

  • Steve Boßelmann
  • Alexander Wickert
  • Anna-Lena Lamprecht
  • Tiziana Margaria


While various modeling languages emerged to express activity sequences and service interactions, current standards and best practices in workflow and process description and modeling are far away form the needs of healthcare professionals. In particular, they are too technical for direct embrace by these professionals, and mostly they just describe processes that still have to be handed over to programmers for implementation from the ground up.

In contrast, we are convinced that in terms of process modeling, a simplicity-driven and domain-specific solution best fits the need to involve business professionals in the model design phase. With eXtreme Model-Driven Design (XMDD) we present a modeling approach that focuses on comprehensible process models that are executable from the first minute and facilitate the user-driven creation and test-running of rapidly designed prototypes.

The applications discussed in this article show examples of using XMMD for clinical paths design and processes of care in the screening of diabetic retinopathy and diabetes day care, as well as patient classification, physical training, and laboratory procedures in cancer-related cachexia research.


  1. Aaronson, N. K., Ahmedzai, S., Bergman, B., Bullinger, M., Cull, A., Duez, N. J., et al. (1993). The European organization for research and treatment of cancer QLQ-C30: A quality-of-life instrument for use. International clinical trials in oncology. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 85(5), 365–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allweyer, T. (2009). BPMN 2.0 – Business process model and notation. Books on Demand, Norderstedt.Google Scholar
  3. Boßelmann, S., & Margaria, T. (2016). Guided business modeling and analysis for business professionals. In M. A. Pfannstiel & C. Rasche (Eds.), Service business model innovation in healthcare and hospital management. Wiesbaden: Springer.Google Scholar
  4. Cioè, C. (2016). Software requirements for a diabetic retinopathy centre. Master’s Thesis, Politecnico di Torino, Italy.Google Scholar
  5. Evans, W., Morley, J. E., Argils, J., Bales, C., Baracos, V., Guttridge, D., et al. (2008). Cachexia: A new definition. Clinical Nutrition, 27(6), 793–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Margaria, T., Boßelmann, S., & Kujath, B. (2013). Simple modeling of executable role-based workflows: An application in the healthcare domain. Integrated Design & Process Science, 17(3), 25–45.Google Scholar
  7. Margaria, T., Floyd, B., Lamprecht, A., Camargo, R. G., Neubauer, J., & Seelaender, M. (2014). Simple management of high assurance data in long-lived interdisciplinary healthcare research: A proposal. In T. Margaria & B. Steffen (Eds.), Leveraging applications of formal methods, verification and validation (Lecture notes in computer science, Vol. 8803, pp. 526–544). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  8. Margaria, T., Floyd, B. D., & Steffen, B. (2011). IT simply works: Simplicity and embedded systems design (pp. 194–199). Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops (COMPSACW), IEEE 35th Annual.Google Scholar
  9. Margaria, M., & Steffen, B. (2009). Business process modelling in the jABC: The one-thing-approach. In J. Cardoso & W. van der Aalst (Eds.), Handbook of research on business process modeling (pp. 1–26). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Margaria, T., & Steffen, B. (2010). Simplicity as a driver for agile innovation. IEEE Computer, 43(6), 90–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Margaria, T., & Steffen, B. (2011). Special session on “Simplification through change of perspective” (pp. 67–68). Software Engineering Workshop (SEW), 34th IEEE.Google Scholar
  12. Margaria, T., & Steffen, B. (2012). Service-orientation: Conquering complexity with XMDD. In M. Hinchey & L. Coyle (Eds.), Conquering complexity (pp. 217–236). Wiesbaden: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Merten, M., & Steffen, B. (2013). Simplicity driven application development. Integrated Design & Process Science, 16(3), 9–23.Google Scholar
  14. Neubauer, J., Frohme, M., Steffen, B., & Margaria, T. (2014). Prototype-driven development of web applications with DyWA. In T. Margaria & B. Steffen (Eds.), Leveraging applications of formal methods, verification and validation (Lecture notes in computer science, Vol. 8802, pp. 56–72). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  15. Rasche, C., Margaria, T., & Floyd, B. (2016). Service model innovation in hospitals – beyond expert organizations. In M. A. Pfannstiel & C. Rasche (Eds.), Service business model innovation in healthcare and hospital management. Wiesbaden: Springer.Google Scholar
  16. Scheer, A. W. (1998). ARIS – business process modeling (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  17. Seelaender, M., Laviano, A., Busquets, S., Pschel, G. P., Margaria, T., & Batista, M. L. (2015). Inflammation in cachexia. Mediators of Inflammation, 2015, 1–2. Article ID 536954.Google Scholar
  18. Steffen, B., Margaria, T., Nagel, R., Jörges, S., & Kubczak, C. (2007). Model-driven development with the jABC. In E. Bin, A. Ziv, & S. Ur (Eds.), Hardware and software, verification and testing (Lecture notes in computer science, Vol. 4383, pp. 92–108). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. van der Aalst, W. (1999). Formalization and verification of event-driven process chains. Information & Software Technology, 41, 639–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. White, S. A., & Miers, D. (2008). BPMN modeling and reference guide. Lighthouse Point, FL: Future Strategies Inc.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steve Boßelmann
    • 1
  • Alexander Wickert
    • 2
  • Anna-Lena Lamprecht
    • 3
  • Tiziana Margaria
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceTU DortmundDortmundGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Computer ScienceUniversity of PotsdamPotsdamGermany
  3. 3.CSIS and Lero, The Irish Software Research CentreUniversity of LimerickLimerickIreland

Personalised recommendations