Two-in-One Oblivious Signatures Secure in the Random Oracle Model

  • Raylin TsoEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9955)


An oblivious signature is a kind of digital signature providing privacy protection for the signature requester. According to the pioneer work introduced by Chen in 1994, it is defined in two different types; an oblivious signature with n messages and, an oblivious signature with n keys. In an oblivious signature with n messages, it allows a signature requester to get a signature on 1-out-of-n messages while during the signing process, the signer cannot find out which one of the n messages has been signed. In an oblivious signature with n keys, it allows a signature requester to get a signature signed by 1-out-of-n signers while during the signing process, no one except the requester can know who has really signed the message. In 2008, Tso et al. gave formal definitions on the models of oblivious signatures and gave an example on the construction of oblivious signatures based on the Schnorr signature. In this paper, we follow Tso et al.’s work but combine the two functionalities into one scheme. We called it Two-in-one oblivious signature. In out scheme, a signature requester can ask 1-out-of-\(n_1\) signers to sign 1-out-of-\(n_2\) messages. At the end of our protocol, no one (including the \(n_1\) possible-signers) knows who has really signed the message as well as which one of the \(n_2\) message has been signed. The scheme is useful in many applications such as e-cash, e-voting and e-auction etc. We will give a formal model on our scheme and give a rigorous security proof based on the random oracle model.


1-out-of-n signature Oblivious signature Oblivious transfer Privacy protection Schnorr signature 



This research was supported by the Ministry of Science of Technology, Taiwan, under the grants MOST 105-2221-E-004-001-MY3, MOST 104-2218-E-001-002 and by Taiwan Information Security Center (TWISC), Academia Sinica.


  1. 1.
    Birman, K., Jelasity, M., Kleinberg, R., Tremel, E.: Building a secure and privacy-preserving smart grid. ACM SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev. 49(1), 131–136 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baldimtsi, F., Lysyanskaya, A.: On the security of one-witness blind signature schemes. In: Sako, K., Sarkar, P. (eds.) ASIACRYPT 2013, Part II. LNCS, vol. 8270, pp. 82–99. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boneh, D., Lynn, B., Shacham, H.: Short signatures from the Weil pairing. In: Boyd, C. (ed.) ASIACRYPT 2001. LNCS, vol. 2248, pp. 514–532. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chaum, D.: Blind signatures for untraceable payments. Advances in Cryptology -CRYPTO 1982, pp. 199–203. Springer, Heidelberg (1983)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen, L.: Oblivious signatures. In: Gollmann, D. (ed.) ESORICS 1994. LNCS, vol. 875, pp. 161–172. Springer, Heidelberg (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chaum, D., van Heyst, E.: Group signatures. In: Davies, D.W. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1991. LNCS, vol. 547, pp. 257–265. Springer, Heidelberg (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Diao, F., Zhang, F., Cheng, X.: A privacy-preserving smart metering scheme using linkable anonymous credential. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 6(1), 461–467 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fiat, A., Shamir, A.: How to prove yourself: a randomized protocol for signing contracts. In: Odlyzko, A.M. (ed.) CRYPTO 1986. LNCS, vol. 263, pp. 186–194. Springer, Heidelberg (1987)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Goldwasser, S., Micali, S., Rivest, R.: A digital signature scheme secure against adaptively chosen message attacks. SIAM J. Comput. 17(2), 281–308 (1988)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kaliski, Jr. B.S.: Privacy preserving data querying. U.S. Patent No. 20,160,085,987. 24. March 2016Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Laguillaumie, F., Langlois, A., Libert, B., Stehlé, D.: Lattice-based group signatures with logarithmic signature size. In: Sako, K., Sarkar, P. (eds.) ASIACRYPT 2013, Part II. LNCS, vol. 8270, pp. 41–61. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pasupuleti, S., Ramalingam, S., Buyya, R.: An efficient and secure privacy-preserving approach for outsourced data of resource constrained mobile devices in cloud computing. J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 64, 12–22 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pointcheval, D., Stern, J.: Security arguments for digital signatures and blind signatures. J. Cryptol. 13(3), 361–396 (2000)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rial, A., Danezis, G.: Privacy-preserving smart metering. In: Proceedings of the \(10\)th Annual ACM Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society, pp. 49–60 (2011)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rivest, R.L., Shamir, A., Tauman, Y.: How to leak a secret. In: Boyd, C. (ed.) ASIACRYPT 2001. LNCS, vol. 2248, pp. 552–565. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schnorr, C.P.: Efficient signature generation by smart cards. J. Cryptol. 4(3), 161–174 (1991)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Song, C., Yin, X., Liu, Y.: A practical electronic voting protocol based upon oblivious signature scheme, In: Proceedings of 2008 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security, pp. 381–384. IEEE (2008)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tso, R., Okamoto, T., Okamoto, E.: 1-out-of-n oblivious signatures. In: Chen, L., Mu, Y., Susilo, W. (eds.) ISPEC 2008. LNCS, vol. 4991, pp. 45–55. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tso, R.: A new way to generate a ring: universal ring signature. Comput. Math. Appl. 65(9), 1350–1359 (2013)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wang, J., Sun, B.: Ring signature schemes from lattice basis delegation. In: Qing, S., Susilo, W., Wang, G., Liu, D. (eds.) ICICS 2011. LNCS, vol. 7043, pp. 15–28. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang, H., Wu, Q., Qin, B., Zhang, F., Domingo-Ferrer, J.: A provably secure ring signature scheme with bounded leakage resilience. In: Huang, X., Zhou, J. (eds.) ISPEC 2014. LNCS, vol. 8434, pp. 388–402. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yi, X., Rao, F.Y., Bertino, E., Bouguettaya, A.: Privacy-preserving association rule mining in cloud computing. In: Proceedings of the 10th ACM Symposium on Information, Computer and Communications Security, pp. 439–450 (2015)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yang, J.J., Li, J.Q., Niu, Y.: A hybrid solution for privacy preserving medical data sharing in the cloud environment. Future Gen. Comput. Syst. 43, 74–86 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhou, J., Lin, X., Dong, X., Cao, Z.: PSMPA: patient self-controllable and multi-level privacy-preserving cooperative authentication in distributed m-Healthcare cloud computing system. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 26(6), 1693–1703 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhou, J., Cao, Z., Dong, X., Xiong, N., Vasilakos, A.V.: 4S: a secure and privacy-preserving key management scheme for cloud-assisted wireless body area network in m-healthcare social networks. Inf. Sci. 314, 255–276 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceNational Chengchi UniversityTaipei CityTaiwan

Personalised recommendations