BOEUF: A Unified Framework for Modeling and Designing Digital Orchestras

  • Florent BerthautEmail author
  • Luke Dahl
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9617)


Orchestras of Digital Musical Instruments (DMIs) enable new musical collaboration possibilities, extending those of acoustic and electric orchestras. However the creation and development of these orchestras remain constrained. In fact, each new musical collaboration system or orchestra piece relies on a fixed number of musicians, a fixed set of instruments (often only one), and a fixed subset of possible modes of collaboration.

In this paper, we describe a unified framework that enables the design of Digital Orchestras with potentially different DMIs and an expandable set of collaboration modes. It relies on research done on analysis and classification of traditional and digital orchestras, on research in Collaborative Virtual Environments, and on interviews of musicians and composers. The BOEUF framework consists of a classification of modes of collaboration and a set of components for modelling digital orchestras. Integrating this framework into DMIs will enable advanced musical collaboration modes to be used in any digital orchestra, including spontaneous jam sessions.


Boeuf Orchestra Collaboration Framework Digital musical instrument Digital orchestra DMI NIME Collaborative music 



This project was partially funded through the Marie Curie FP7 framework (Grant Agreement PIEF-GA-2012-330770).


  1. 1.
    Benford, S., Bowers, J., Fahlén, L.E., Greenhalgh, C.: Managing mutual awareness in collaborative virtual environments. In: Proceedings of VRST, pp. 223–236 (1994)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Benford, S., Bowers, J., Fahlén, L.E., Greenhalgh, C., Snowdon, D.: User embodiment in collaborative virtual environments. In: Proceedings of CHI 1995, New York, NY, USA, pp. 242–249 (1995)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berthaut, F., Katayose, H., Wakama, H., Totani, N., Sato, Y.: First person shooters as collaborative multiprocess instruments. In: Proceedings of NIME 2011, Oslo, Norway, pp. 44–47 (2011)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Blaine, T., Fels, S.: Contexts of collaborative musical experiences. In: Proceedings of 2003 Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, NIME 2003, pp. 129–134. National University of Singapore, Singapore (2003).
  5. 5.
    Dahl, L.: Wicked problems and design considerations in composing for laptop orchestra. In: Proceedings of NIME 2012 (2012)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dahl, L., Wang, G.: Sound bounce: physical metaphors in designing mobile music performance. In: Proceedings of NIME 2010, Sydney, Australia (2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fencott, R., Bryan-Kinns, N.: Hey Man, you’re invading my Personal Space! Privacy and awareness in collaborative music. In: Proceedings of NIME 2010, pp. 198–203 (2010).
  8. 8.
    Gresham-Lancaster, S.: The aesthetics and history of the hub: the effects of changing technology on network computer music. Leonardo Music J. 8, 39–44 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hattwick, I., Wanderley, M.M.: A dimension space for evaluating collaborative musical performance systems (2012)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hindmarsh, J., Fraser, M., Heath, C., Benford, S., Greenhalgh, C.: Object-focused interaction in collaborative virtual environments. ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact. 7(4), 477–509 (2000). Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jordà, S.: Multi-user instruments: models, examples and promises. In: Proceedings of NIME 2005, Singapore, pp. 23–26 (2005).
  12. 12.
    Jordà, S., Kaltenbrunner, M., Geiger, G., Bencina, R.: The reactable*. In: Proceedings of International Computer Music Conference (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lee, S.W., Freeman, J., Colella, A., Yao, S., Van Troyer, A.: Collaborative musical improvisation in a laptop ensemble with LOLC. In: Proceedings of 8th ACM Conference on Creativity and Cognition, C&C 2011, pp. 361–362. ACM, New York (2011).
  14. 14.
    Malloch, J., Sinclair, S., Wanderley, M.M.: Libmapper: (a library for connecting things). In: CHI 2013 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 3087–3090. ACM (2013)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Malloch, J., Sinclair, S., Wanderley, M.M.: A network-based framework for collaborative development and performance of digital musical instruments. In: Kronland-Martinet, R., Ystad, S., Jensen, K. (eds.) CMMR 2007. LNCS, vol. 4969, pp. 401–425. Springer, Heidelberg (2008). Scholar
  16. 16.
    Margery, D., Arnaldi, B., Plouzeau, N.: A general framework for cooperative manipulation in virtual environments. In: Gervautz, M., Schmalstieg, D., Hildebrand, A. (eds.) Virtual Environments 1999. Eurographics, pp. 169–178. Springer, Vienna (1999)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Martinez Plasencia, D., Berthaut, F., Karnik, A., Subramanian, S.: Through the combining glass. In: Proceedings of 27th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, UIST 2014, pp. 341–350. ACM, New York (2014).
  18. 18.
    Oh, J., Herrera, J., Bryan, N.J., Dahl, L., Wang, G.: Evolving the mobile phone orchestra. In: Proceedings of NIME 2010, Sydney, Australia (2010)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pinho, M.S., Bowman, D.A., Freitas, C.M.: Cooperative object manipulation inimmersive virtual environments: framework and techniques. In: Proceedings of ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, VRST 2002, pp. 171–178. ACM, New York (2002).
  20. 20.
    Place, T., Lossius, T.: Jamoma: a modular standard for structuring patches in max. In: Proceedings of International Computer Music Conference, pp. 143–146 (2006)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Seddon, F., Biasutti, M.: A comparison of modes of communication between members of a string quartet and a jazz sextet. Psychol. Music 37(4), 395–415 (2009). Scholar
  22. 22.
    Snowdon, D.N., Munro, A.J.: Collaborative Virtual Environments: Digital Places and Spaces for Interaction. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Secaucus (2001)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vigoda, B., Merrill, D.: JamiOki-PureJoy: a game engine and instrument for electronically-mediated musical improvisation. In: Proceedings of 7th International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, NIME 2007, pp. 321–326. ACM, New York (2007).
  24. 24.
    Wang, G., Bryan, N., Oh, J., Hamilton, R.: Stanford laptop orchestra (slork). In: Proceedings of International Computer Music Conference, pp. 505–508 (2009)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Weinberg, G.: Interconnected musical networks: toward a theoretical framework. Comput. Music J. 29(2), 23–39 (2005). Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wolff, R., Roberts, D.J., Steed, A., Otto, O.: A review of telecollaboration technologies with respect to closely coupled collaboration. Int. J. Comput. Appl. Technol. 29(1), 11–26 (2007). Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 International License (, which permits any noncommercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CNRS, Centrale Lille, UMR 9189 - CRIStALUniversity of LilleLilleFrance
  2. 2.University of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations