Storytelling in Serious Games

  • Antonia KampaEmail author
  • Susanne Haake
  • Paolo Burelli
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9970)


This chapter about storytelling and interactivity in storytelling first explains on various serious games examples foundations of storytelling. Then storytelling in Interactive Media with regard to serious games is described. Further the current state of the art on Interactive Digital Storytelling is presented including example experiences, authoring tools and challenges in the field combined with examples of serious games. This chapter closes concluding with open storytelling challenges and opportunities in serious games development and recommending further literature on the subject.


Narrating techniques Serious games Interactive media Interactive digital storytelling 


  1. 1.
    Abawi, D.F., Reinhold, S., Dörner, R.: A toolkit for authoring non-linear storytelling environments using mixed reality. In: Göbel, S., Spierling, U., Hoffmann, A., Iurgel, I., Schneider, O., Dechau, J., Feix, A. (eds.) TIDSE 2004. LNCS, vol. 3105, pp. 113–118. Springer, Heidelberg (2004). doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-27797-2_15 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akenine-Möller, T., Haines, E., Hoffman, N.: Real-Time Rendering, 3rd edn. A. K. Peters Ltd., Natick (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ashmore, C., Nitsche, M.: The quest in a generated world. In: Digra International Conference, pp. 503–509 (2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aylett, R.: Narrative in virtual environments - towards emergent narrative. In: AAAI Fall Symposium on Narrative Intelligence, pp. 83–86 (1999)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baran, I., Popović, J.: Automatic rigging and animation of 3D characters. ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), Article no. 72 (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bares, W.H., Gregoire, J.P., Lester, J.C.: Realtime constraint-based cinematography for complex interactive 3D worlds. In: Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence (1998)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bordwell, D.: Narration in the Fiction Film (1986)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brand, M.: Voice puppetry. In: ACM SIGGRAPH International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, pp. 21–28. ACM Press, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Burelli, P.: Virtual Cinematography in Games : Investigating the impact on player experience. In: International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, Chania, Greece, pp. 134–141. Society for the Advancement of the Science of Digital Games (2013)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Burelli, P.: Implementing game cinematography: technical challenges and solutions for automatic camera control in games. In: William, H., Bares, M.C., Ronfard, R. (eds.) Eurographics Workshop on Intelligent Cinematography and Editing, Zurich, pp. 59–63. Eurographics Association (2015)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Burelli, P., Yannakakis, G.N.: Adaptive virtual camera control trough player modelling. User Model. User Adapt. Interact. 25, 155–183 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Campbell, J.: The Hero with a Thousand Faces. MJF Books, New York (1949)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cassell, J., Vilhjálmsson, H.H., Bickmore, T.: BEAT: the behavior expression animation toolkit. In: Life-Like Characters, vol. 137, pp. 163–185. ACM Press, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chatman, S.B.: Story and Discourse: Narrative Structure in Fiction and Film, 1st edn. Cornell University Press, Ithaca (1978)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chatman, S.B.: Story and Discourse: Narrative Structure in Fiction and Film. Cornell University Press, Ithaca (1980)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cheong, Y.-G., Jhala, A., Bae, B.-C., Young, R.M.: Automatically generating summary visualizations from game logs. In: AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Interactive Digitale Entertainment, pp. 167–172 (2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Christianson, D., Anderson, S., He, L.-W., Salesin, D.H., Weld, D., Cohen, M.F.: Declarative camera control for automatic cinematography. In: AAAI, pp. 148–155. AAAI Press, Portland (1996)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Christie, M., Olivier, P., Normand, J.M.: Camera control in computer graphics. Comput. Graph. Forum 27(8), 2197–2218 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Crawford, C.: Chris Crawford on Interactive Storytelling, vol. 5334. New Riders, Berkeley (2012)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dormans, J.: Adventures in level design. In: Workshop on Procedural Content Generation in Games, pp. 1–8. ACM Press, New York (2010)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Drucker, S.M., Galyean, T.A., Zeltzer, D.: CINEMA: a system for procedural camera movements. In: Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, pp. 67–70. ACM (1992)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Drucker, S.M., Zeltzer, D.: Intelligent camera control in a virtual environment. In: Graphics Interface, pp. 190–199. ACM, Alberta, Canada (1994)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    El-Nasr, M.S.: Story visualization techniques for interactive drama. In: AAAI Spring Symposium, pp. 23–28. AAAI Press (2002)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    El-Nasr, M.S.: An interactive narrative architecture based on filmmaking theory. Int. J. Intell. Games Simul. 3(1), 49–62 (2004)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Electric Shadow: World without oil (2007)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Field, S.: Screenplay. Delacorte, New York (1982)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Freytag, G.: Die technik des dramas. Hirzel, Leipzig (1872)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Genette, G.: Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method, vol. 9. Cornell University Press, Ithaca (1980)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Göbel, S., Hardy, S., Mehm, F., Wendel, V.: Serious games for health - personalized exergames. In: 18th ACM International Conference on Multimedia, pp. 1663–1666. ACM (2010)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gordon, A.S., Roemmele, M.: An authoring tool for movies in the style of Heider and Simmel. In: Mitchell, A., Fernández-Vara, C., Thue, D. (eds.) ICIDS 2014. LNCS, vol. 8832, pp. 49–60. Springer, Heidelberg (2014). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-12337-0_5 Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ha, H.N.: Automatic lighting design. Ph.D. thesis, University of Newcastle (2008)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Höffe, O.: Aristoteles: Poetik. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Impact Games: PeaceMaker (2007)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jenkins, H.: Game design as narrative. Computer 44, 53 (2004)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jewell, M.O.: Motivated music: automatic soundtrack generation for film by. Ph.D. thesis, University of Southampton (2007)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jhala, A., Young, R.M.: Cinematic visual discourse: representation, generation, and evaluation. IEEE Trans. Comput. Intell. AI Games 2(2), 69–81 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kato, P.M., Cole, S.W., Bradlyn, A.S., Pollock, B.H.: A video game improves behavioral outcomes in adolescents and young adults with Cancer: a randomized trial. Pediatrics 122(2), 305–317 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Koenitz, H.: Interactive Digital Narrative: History,Theory and Practice. Routledge, New York (2015)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Koenitz, H., Chen, K.-J.: Genres, structures and strategies in interactive digital narratives – analyzing a body of works created in ASAPS. In: Oyarzun, D., Peinado, F., Young, R.M., Elizalde, A., Méndez, G. (eds.) ICIDS 2012. LNCS, vol. 7648, pp. 84–95. Springer, Heidelberg (2012). doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-34851-8_8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kriegel, M., Aylett, R.: Crowd-sourced AI authoring with ENIGMA. In: Aylett, R., Lim, M.Y., Louchart, S., Petta, P., Riedl, M. (eds.) ICIDS 2010. LNCS, vol. 6432, pp. 275–278. Springer, Heidelberg (2010). doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16638-9_41 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lino, C., Christie, M., Lamarche, F., Schofield, G., Olivier, P.: A real-time cinematography system for interactive 3D environments. In: ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation, pp. 139–148. The Eurographics Association (2010)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lotman, J.M.: Notes on the structure of a literary text. Semiotica 15(3), 199–206 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Magnenat-Thalmann, N., Primeau, E., Thalmann, D.: Abstract muscle action procedures for human face animation. Vis. Comput. 3(5), 290–297 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Marr, A.C.: Serious Games für die Informations- und Wissensvermittlung - Bibliotheken auf neuen Wegen (B.I.T. online - Innovativ) Band 28 (2010)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Martinez, H.P., Jhala, A., Yannakakis, G.N.: Analyzing the impact of camera viewpoint on player psychophysiology. In: International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction and Workshops, pp. 1–6. IEEE (2009)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mateas, M., Stern, A.: Interaction and narrative. In: The Game Design Reader: A Rules of Play Anthology, pp. 642–669. MIT Press, Boston (2005)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    McCoy, J., Treanor, M., Samuel, B.: Prom week: social physics as gameplay. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Foundations of Digital Games, pp. 319–321. ACM (2011)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    McGonigal, J.: Reality is broken: why games make us better and how they can change the world, vol. 22, p. 400. New York (2011)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nintendo: Super Mario Land (1989)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nisi, O.I., Valentina, M.H.: Places, location-aware multimedia stories: turning spaces into places. In: Artech, International Conference on Digital Arts, pp. 72–82. Universidade Cátolica Portuguesa (2008)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Pizzi, D., Cavazza, M.: From debugging to authoring: adapting productivity tools to narrative content description. In: Spierling, U., Szilas, N. (eds.) ICIDS 2008. LNCS, vol. 5334, pp. 285–296. Springer, Heidelberg (2008). doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-89454-4_36 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Proust, M.: In Search of Lost Time. Random House, New York (1932)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ranon, R., Urli, T.: Improving the efficiency of viewpoint composition. IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 20(5), 795–807 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Realtime Associates Inc.: Re-Mission (2006)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Schäfer, L., Stauber, A., Bokan, B.: StoryNet: an educational game for social skills. In: Göbel, S., Spierling, U., Hoffmann, A., Iurgel, I., Schneider, O., Dechau, J., Feix, A. (eds.) TIDSE 2004. LNCS, vol. 3105, pp. 148–157. Springer, Heidelberg (2004). doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-27797-2_20 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Serious Games Interactive: Global Conflicts Palestine (2007)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Shacked, R., Lischinski, D.: Automatic lighting design using a perceptual quality metric. Comput. Graph. Forum 20(3), 215–227 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Spierling, U.: Implicit creation non-programmer conceptual models for authoring in interactive digital storytelling. Ph.D. thesis, University of Plymouth (2010)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Spierling, U., Szilas, N.: Authoring issues beyond tools. In: Iurgel, I.A., Zagalo, N., Petta, P. (eds.) ICIDS 2009. LNCS, pp. 50–61. Springer, Heidelberg (2009). doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-10643-9_9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Stanzel, F.K.: Theorie des Erzahlens. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen (1995)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Szilas, N.: IDtension: a narrative engine for interactive drama. In: Technologies for Interactive Digital Storytelling and Entertainment (TIDSE) Conference, pp. 183–203. Fraunhofer IRB Verlag (2003)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Szilas, N.: Interactive drama on computer: beyond linear narrative. In: AAAI Fall Symposium on Narrative Intelligence, vol. 144, pp. 150–156 (1999)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Tomlinson, B., Blumberg, B., Nain, D.: Expressive autonomous cinematography for interactive virtual environments. In: International Conference on Autonomous Agents, Barcelona, Spain, p. 317 (2000)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Viera, J.D., Viera, M.: Lighting for Film and Electronic Cinematography. Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont (1993)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wages, R., Grützmacher, B., Conrad, S.: Learning from the movie industry: adapting production processes for storytelling in VR. In: Göbel, S., Spierling, U., Hoffmann, A., Iurgel, I., Schneider, O., Dechau, J., Feix, A. (eds.) TIDSE 2004. LNCS, pp. 119–125. Springer, Heidelberg (2004). doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-27797-2_16 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Weiss, S., Müller, W., Spierling, U., Steimle, F.: Scenejo – an interactive storytelling platform. In: Subsol, G. (ed.) ICVS 2005. LNCS, pp. 77–80. Springer, Heidelberg (2005). doi: 10.1007/11590361_9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Widjajanto, W., Lund, M., Schelhowe, H.: A web-based authoring tool for visual storytelling for children. In: 6th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing and Multimedia (MoMM), pp. 464–467. ACM (2008)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wouters, P., Van Oostendorp, H., Boonekamp, R., Van Der Spek, E.: The role of game discourse analysis and curiosity in creating engaging and effective serious games by implementing a back story and foreshadowing. Interact. Comput. 23(4), 329–336 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Michael Young, R.: Creating interactive narrative structures: the potential for AI approaches. In: AAAI Spring Symposium. Narosa Publishing House (2000)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Young, R.M.: Story and discourse: a bipartite model of narrative generation in virtual worlds. Interact. Stud. 8(2), 177–208 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.RheinMain University of Applied SciencesWiesbadenGermany
  2. 2.University of Education WeingartenWeingartenGermany
  3. 3.Aalborg University Copenhagen and Tactile Entertainment APSCopenhagenGermany

Personalised recommendations