At least nine people were wounded, and ten others were killed when a man opened fire on a campus in Southwest Oregon in October 2015 (NBCnews 2015). In Littleton, Colorado, in 1999, two boys aged 17 and 18 opened fire at Columbine High School, killing 12 students and one teacher, before committing suicide (Leary et al. 2003). In October 2015, a 21-year-old man, dressed as Darth Vader from the Star Wars movies, walked into a Swedish primary school with a long knife and killed a 15-year-old student and a 21-year-old teaching assistant. These are tragic examples, among several from around the world, of traumas affecting school children. Childhood traumatic stress can have a huge impact on almost every kind of developmental process, and the high number of traumatic events experienced by children has added to calls for schools to serve as healing agents for childhood trauma (e.g., Jaycox et al. 2014). Schools are an optimal arena for mental health interventions because they provide access to all children on a regular basis and over time.
KeywordsSchool School-based interventions Group CBT
Thanks to Julia Norman for helping with the language.
- Boyraz G, Granda R, Baker CN, Tidwell LL, Waits JB (2016) Posttraumatic stress, effort regulation, and academic outcomes among college students: a longitudinal study. J Couns Psychol 63:475–486. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cou0000102
- Dyregrov A (2006) Sorg hos barn: en håndbok for voksne. Fagbokforl, BergenGoogle Scholar
- Dyregrov K, Dyregrov A (2008) Effective grief and bereavement support: the role of family, friends, colleagues, schools and support professionals. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Dyregrov K, Endsjø M, Idsøe T, Dyregrov A (2014) Suggestions for the ideal follow up for bereaved students as seen by school personnel. J Emotion Behav Diffic 20:289–301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13632752.2014.955676
- Gustavsson JE, Westling Allodi M, Alin Åkerman B, Eriksson C, Eriksson L, Fischbein S, Granlund M, Gustafsson P, Ljungdahl S, Ogden T, Persson RS (2010) School, learning and mental health: a systematic review. Stockholm: The Royal Swedish Academy of SciencesGoogle Scholar
- Helland MJ, Mathiesen KS (2009) 13–15 åringer fra vanlige familier i Norge: Hverdagsliv og psykisk helse [13–15 year-olds from regular families in Norway: everyday life and mental health]. Norwegian Institute of Public Health, OsloGoogle Scholar
- Jaycox LH, Stein B, Amaya-Jackson L (2009) School-based treatment for children and adolescents. In: Foa EB, Keane TM, Friedman MJ, Cohen J (eds) Effective treatment for PTSD: practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. Guilford Press, New York, pp. 327–345Google Scholar
- March JS, Amaya-Jackson L, Murray MC, Schulte A (1998) Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder after a single-incident stressor. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 37(6):585–593. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199806000-00008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Masten AS, Roisman GI, Long JD, Burt KB, Obradovic J, Riley JR et al (2005) Developmental cascades: linking academic achievement, externalizing and internalizing symptoms over 20 years. Dev Psychol 41:733–746. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyhref&AN=DP.DA.GCC.MASTEN.DCLAAE&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
- Mathiesen KS, Karevold E, Knudsen AK (2009) Psykiske lidelser blant barn og unge i Norge. Folkehelseinstituttet, OsloGoogle Scholar
- NBCnews (2015) Oregon shooting: umpqua community college gunman talked religion. Retrieved from http://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/officers-respond-report-shooting-umpqua-community-college-n437051
- Smith P, Dyregrov A, Yule W, Gupta L, Perrin S, Gjestad R (2013) Children and disaster: teaching recovery techniques. Bergen: Children and War Foundation. http://www.childrenandwar.org/
- Thienkrua W, Cardozo BL, Chakkraband MS, Guadamuz TE, Pengjuntr W, Tantipiwatanaskul P, Sakornsatian S, Ekassawin S, Panyayong B, Varangrat A (2006) Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among children in tsunami-affected areas in southern Thailand. JAMA 296(5):549–559CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar