EyeCo: Effects of Shared Gaze on Social Presence in an Online Cooperative Game

  • Bernhard MaurerEmail author
  • Michael Lankes
  • Barbara Stiglbauer
  • Manfred Tscheligi
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9926)


This paper investigates the effects of a shared gaze approach on social presence in an online cooperative game. We explored how a shared gaze visualization changes how players work together and form collaborative strategies based on different combinations of gaze interaction and verbal communication. Our study findings highlight the positive influence of a shared gaze visualization on team cohesion and involvement towards increased perceived social presence among cooperating team members. With our findings we want to inform game designers with insights on the inclusion of gaze-based interaction in remote gaming settings and whether this can strengthen the social bond between players. Our approach aims at fostering social couplings in remote collaborative gaming and investigates their potential to increase the connectedness between players.


Cooperative games Gaze-based interaction Social presence Shared gaze 



The financial support by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy, the Austrian Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology and the federal governments Vorarlberg, Salzburg, Steiermark is gratefully acknowledged (Comet - LiTech).


  1. 1.
    Bulu, S.T.: Place presence, social presence, co-presence and satisfaction in virtual worlds. Comput. Educ. 58(1), 154–161 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cairns, P., Cox, A.L., Day, M., Martin, H., Perryman, T.: Who but not where: the effect of social play on immersion in digital games. Int. J. Hum Comput Stud. 71(11), 1069–1077 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Calleja, G.: In-Game: From Immersion to Incorporation. The MIT Press, Cambridge (2011)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dunning, G.B.: Research in nonverbal communication. Theor. Pract. 10(4), 250–258 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gajadhar, B., de Kort, Y., IJsselsteijn, W.: Influence of social setting on player experience of digital games. CHI 2008 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI EA 2008), pp. 3099–3104. ACM Press, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hudson, M., Cairns, P.: Interrogating social presence in games with experiential vignettes. Entertainment Comput. 5(2), 101–114 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hudson, M., Cairns, P.: Measuring social presence in team-based digital games. In: Interacting with Presence: HCI and the Sense of Presence in Computer-mediated Environments, p. 83 (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kaye, L.K.: Exploring flow experiences in cooperative digital gaming contexts. Comput. Hum. Behav. 55, 286–291 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kendon, A.: Some functions of gaze-direction in social interaction. Acta Psychol. 26, 22–63 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kleinke, C.L.: Gaze and eye contact: a research review. Psych. Bull. 100(1), 78 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lankes, M., Mirlacher, T., Wagner, S., Hochleitner, W.: Whom are you looking for?: the effects of different player representation relations on the presence in gaze-based games. Proceedings of CHI PLAY 2014, pp. 171–179. ACM, New York (2014)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Manninen, T., Kujanpää, T.: Non-verbal communication forms in multi-player game session. In: Faulkner, X., Finlay, J., Détienne, F. (eds.) People and Computers XVI-Memorable Yet Invisible, pp. 383–401. Springer, London (2002)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mansour, S.S., El-Said, M.: Building a bi-directional bridge between social presence and interaction in online games. In: IEEE 17th International Conference on Computer Games (CGAMES), pp. 202–207. IEEE, July 2012Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Maurer, B., Aslan, I., Wuchse, M., Neureiter, K., Tscheligi, M.: Gaze-based onlooker integration: exploring the in-between of active player and passive spectator in co-located gaming. In: Proceedings of the CHI PLAY 2015, pp. 163–173. ACM, New York (2015)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mayring, P.: Qualitative content analysis. In: Flick, U., von Kardoff, E., Steinke, I. (eds.) A Companion to Qualitative Research, pp. 266–269. Sage, London (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shahid, S., Krahmer, E., Swerts, M.: Video-mediated and co-present gameplay: effects of mutual gaze on game experience, expressiveness and perceived social presence. Interact. Comput. 24(4), 292–305 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Short, J., Williams, E., Christie, B.: The Social Psychology of Telecommunications. Wiley, London (1976)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sjöblom, B.: Gaming as a situated collaborative practice. Hum. IT 9(3), 128–165 (2008)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sparpweed Games. Ibb & Obb. [PC], Sparpweed Games, played January, 2016 (2014)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tamborini, R., Bowman, N.: Presence in video games. In: Bracken, C., Skalski, P. (eds.) Immersed in Media: Telepresence in Everyday Life, pp. 87–109. Routledge, New York (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernhard Maurer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael Lankes
    • 2
  • Barbara Stiglbauer
    • 3
  • Manfred Tscheligi
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Human-Computer InteractionUniversity of SalzburgSalzburgAustria
  2. 2.Department of Digital MediaUniversity of Applied Sciences Upper AustriaHagenbergAustria
  3. 3.Department of Education and PsychologyJohannes Kepler University LinzLinzAustria

Personalised recommendations