Success Factors for Applied Game Projects - An Exploratory Framework for Practitioners

  • Ralf Schmidt
  • Mirco Zick
  • Burkhard Schmidt
  • Maic Masuch
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9926)


Applied games are an increasingly utilized approach to develop applications and concepts of organizational learning. However, which factors support the successful planning and execution of such projects within the organizational landscape remains unclear. This study initiates explorative research towards a success-factor model for applied games. The data is based on nine expert interviews within the DACH-region as well as a thorough literature review. The resulting factors are organized in a two-dimensional model, presenting the process of developing applied game projects and major organizational abstraction layers. The model aims to support the development of research and industry applied games productions in organizational context. Next steps are further validations as well as the development of a maturity model.


Applied games Gamification Serious games Game-based learning Success factors Best practices Organizational learning 



We thank all interviewees for their time and valuable information and Thannos Rammos for the extensive background on legal aspects. We also thank the German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) and DLR Project Management Agency for supporting this research.


  1. 1.
    Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales: Grünbuch - Arbeit weiter denken (2015)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nerdinger, F.W.: Organisationsentwicklung. In: Nerdinger, F.W., Blickle, G., Schaper, N. (eds.) Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, pp. 159–169. Springer, Berlin (2014)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cummings, T.G., Worley, C.G.: Organization Development & Change. South-Western/Cengage Learning, Mason (2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Reichwald, R.: Innovative Arbeitsgestaltung im Unternehmen der Zukunft. In: Arbeiten und Lernen, pp. 39–54 (2001)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schmidt, R., Emmerich, K., Schmidt, B.: Applied games – in search of a new definition. In: Chorianopoulos, K., Divitini, M., Hauge, J.B., Jaccheri, L., Malaka, R. (eds.) ICEC 2015. LNCS, vol. 9353, pp. 100–111. Springer, Heidelberg (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., Nacke, L.: From game design elements to gamefulness. defining “gamification”. In: MindTrek 2011, Proceedings of the 15th International Academic Conference on Envisioning Future Media Environments, ACM Press, New York (2011)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Whitton, N.: Digital Games and Learning. Routledge, New York (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Prensky, M.: Digital Game Based Learning. Paragon House, St. Paul (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Freitas, S.D., Liarokapis, F.: Serious games: a new paradigm for education? In: Ma, M., Oikonomou, A., Jain, L.C. (eds.) Serious Games and Edutainment Applications, pp. 9–23. Springer, London (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Oprescu, F., Jones, C., Katsikitis, M.: I play at work - ten principles for transforming work processes through gamification. Front. Psychol. 5, 14 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ritterfeld, U.: Serious Games: Mechanisms and Effects. Routledge, New York (2009)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hassenzahl, M.: Experience Design: Technology for all the Right Reasons. Morgan & Claypool, San Rafael (2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brown, T., Katz, B.: Change by Design: How Design Thinking Transforms Organizations and Inspires Innovation. Harper Collins, New York (2009)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schmidt, R., Brosius, C., Herrmanny, K.: Ein Vorgehensmodell für angewandte Spielformen. In: Strahringer, S., Ley, C. (eds.) Gamification. HMD Praxis der Wirtschaftsinformatik, pp. 826–839. Springer, Heidelberg (2015)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mayring, P.: Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse : Grundlagen und Techniken. Beltz, Weinheim (2015)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Michael, D., Chen, S.: Serious Games: Games that Educate, Train, and Inform. Thompson Course Technology, Boston (2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Herger, M.: Enterprise Gamification. Createspace, Lexington (2014)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nicholson, S.: A RECIPE for meaningful gamification. In: Reiners, T., Wood, L.C. (eds.) Gamification in Education and Business, pp. 1–20. Springer, Cham (2015)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stokes, B., Walden, N., O’Shea, G., Nasso, F., Mariutto, G. Burak, A.: Impact with Games: A Fragmented Field. ETC Press under CC License.
  20. 20.
    Hamari, J., Koivisto, J., Sarsa, H.: Does gamification work? -- a literature review of empirical studies on gamification. In: Proceedings of 47th Haiwai International Conference on System Sciences (2014)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kapp, K.M.: The Gamification of Learning and Instruction: Game Based Methods and Strategies for Training and Education. Pfeiffer, San Francisco (2012)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schubert, U., Groß, M., Pötzsch, S.: User experierence and user-centered design at DATEV eG. In: Maedche, A., Botzenhardt, A., Neer, L. (eds.) Software for People. Fundamentals, Trends and Best Practices, pp. 169–180. Springer, Berlin (2012)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gulliksen, J., Boivie, I., Persson, J., Hektor, A., Herulf, L.: Making a difference. In: Raisamo, R. (ed.) NordiCHI 2004, Proceedings of the Third Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, pp. 207–215. ACM, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wallach, D., Scholz, S.C.: User centered design: why and how to put users first in software development. In: Maedche, A., Botzenhardt, A., Neer, L. (eds.) Software for People. Fundamentals, Trends and Best Practices, pp. 11–38. Springer, Berlin (2012)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Abele, P., Hurtienne, J., Prümper, J.: Usability Management bei SAP-Projekten. Grundlagen Vorgehen Methoden. Friedr Vieweg & Sohn Verlag | GWV Fachverlage GmbH Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Uebernickel, F., Brenner, W.: Design thinking. In: Hoffmann, C.P., Lennerts, S., Schmitz, C., Stölzle, W. (eds.) Business Innovation: Das St. Galler Modell, pp. 243–265. Springer Fachmedien, Wiesbaden (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kolko, J.: Design thinking comes of age. Harvard Bus. Rev. 93(9), 66–71 (2015)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hilbrecht, H., Kempkens, O.: Design thinking im Unternehmen - Herausforderung mit Mehrwert. In: Keuper, F., Hamidian, K., Verwaayen, E., Kalinowski, T., Kraijo, C. (eds.) Digitalisierung und Innovation, pp. 347–364. Springer, Wiesbaden (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wilke, P., Stracke, S., Beile, J., Voß, E.: Innovation als Voraussetzung für Erfolg. In: Nerdinger, F.W., Wilke, P., Röhrig, R., Stracke, S. (eds.) Innovation und Beteiligung in der betrieblichen Praxis, pp. 277–288. Gabler, Wiesbaden (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ferrara, J.: Games for persuasion: argumentation, procedurality, and the lie of gamification. Games Cult. 8, 289–304 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralf Schmidt
    • 1
  • Mirco Zick
    • 1
  • Burkhard Schmidt
    • 2
  • Maic Masuch
    • 1
  1. 1.Entertainment Computing GroupUniversity of Duisburg-EssenDuisburgGermany
  2. 2.Hochschule für Internationales Management- International University HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany

Personalised recommendations