Are Innovation Systems Complex Systems?
- 369 Downloads
Basically, complex systems are defined as a large number of autonomous entities in interaction, that create several levels of collective organization leading to emergent (and immergent) behavior. In short, complex systems are characterized by the observation that the whole is more than the sum of the parts (Aristotle). The aim of this paper is to address the issue of innovation systems in order to determine by how much they constitute complex systems.
KeywordsInnovation System Perfect Competition Autonomous Entity Collective Organization Human Life Expectancy
The authors wish to thank Pierre Collet (University of Strasbourg) for his valuable support.
- 1.Schumpeter JA (1950) Capitalism, socialism and democracy. Harper and Brothers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 3.Freeman C (1995) The ‘National System of Innovation’ in historical perspective. Camb J Econ 19:5–24Google Scholar
- 4.Lundvall B-Å (ed) (1992) National systems of innovation. Towards a theory of innovation and interactive learning. Pinter Publishers, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 5.Cooke P (1998) Origins of the concept. In: Braczyk H-J, Cooke P, Heidenreich M (eds) Regional innovation systems - the role of governance in a globalized world. UCL Press, London, pp 2–25Google Scholar
- 6.Stamboulis Y (2008) Exploring the system dynamics of innovation systems. System Dynamics Society, Athens, Online: http://www.systemdynamics.org/conferences/2008/proceed/papers/STAMB454 Google Scholar
- 7.Simon H (1957) Models of man. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 8.Johnson-Laird PN (1983) Mental models. Towards a cognitive science of language, inference and consciousness. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar