Advertisement

Exotic and Invasive Plants: Water Hyacinth

  • Alie SeidEmail author
  • Banchiamlak Getenet
Chapter
Part of the AESS Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies and Sciences Series book series (AESS)

Abstract

This chapter is about biodiversity threats posed by water hyacinth in the pristine Lake Tana, discuss its potential problems and suggest possible solutions. Lake Tana watershed is within the East African Afro-montane Hotspot and the productive agro-ecosystems of Ethiopia. As a hotspot, the watershed is considered as global priority conservation area and Tana is proposed to be designated as a biosphere reserve. The catchment stretched from Lake Tana 1785 m above sea level to mount Guna 4150, and contains three distinct agro ecosystems. The national development strategy is changing the socioeconomic and biophysical landscapes. The expansion of a century old introduced Eucalyptus still has unsettled controversies. The lowland plane and the lake shore ecosystem are facing challenges of the worst invasive in 2004. Since then, the alien species is added on the two major environmental challenges namely anthropogenic activities and climate change .

Keywords

Biosphere reserve Invasive plant Lake Tana Waterhyacinth 

References

  1. Auld BA, Hosking J, McFadyen RE (1983) Analysis of the spread of tiger pear and parthenium weed in Australia. Aust Weeds 2:56–60Google Scholar
  2. Baillie JEM, Hilton-Taylor C, Stuart SN (2004) IUCN red list of threatened species. A Global Species Assessment. IUCN—the World Conservation Union, GlandGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker HG (1974) The evolution of weeds. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 5:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker HG (1995) Aspects of the genecology of weeds. In: Kruckeberg AR, Walker RB, Leviton AE (eds) Genecology and ecogeographic races. Pacific Division, American Association for the Advancement of Science, San Francisco, pp 189–224Google Scholar
  5. Borokoni T, Babalola F (2012) Management of invasive plant species in Nigeria through economic exploitation: lessons from other countries. Manag Biol Invasions 3(1):45–55. doi: 10.3391/mbi.2012.3.1.05 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. CBD (2005). Invasive Alien Species. Convention on biological diversity. http://www.biodiv.org/programmes/cross-cutting/alien/. Accessed on 6 Jan 2014
  7. Center TD, Hill MP et al (2002) Water hyacinth. In: van Driesche R, Blossey B et al (eds) Biological control of invasive plants in the Eastern United States. Forest Health and Technology Enterprises Team, West Virginia. http://www.fs.fed.us/foresthealth/technology/pdfs/BiocontrolsOfInvasivePlants02_04.pdf. Accessed 4 June 2015
  8. Charles H, Dukes JS (2007) Impacts of invasive species on ecosystem services. In: Nentwig W (ed) Ecological studies. Biological invasions, vol 193. Springer, Berlin. http://globalecology.stanford.edu/DGE/Dukes/Charles_Dukes_inpress.pdf. Accessed on 6 Feb 2015
  9. Charudattan R (1986) Integrated control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) with a pathogen, insects, and herbicides. Weed Sci 34:26–30Google Scholar
  10. Chen YL, Chiang HC, Wu LQ et al (1989) Residues of glyphosate in an aquatic environment after control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). J Weed Sci Technol 34(2):117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chukwuka KS, Uka UN (2007) Effect of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Infestation on Zooplankton Populations in Awba Reservoir, Ibadan South-West Nigeria. J Biol Sci. doi: 10.3923/jbs.2007.865.869
  12. Dagno K, Lahlali R, Diourte M et al (2012) Fungi occurring on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach) in Niger River in Mali and their evaluation as Mycoherbicides. J Aquat Plant Manag 50:25–32Google Scholar
  13. Darwin C (1859) The origin of species by means of natural selection. Murray, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. EEA (2012) The impacts of invasive alien species in Europe. EEA technical reports no 16/2012. Publications Office of the European Union, Brussels, Luxembourg. http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/impacts-of-invasive-alien-species. Accessed 12 Sep 2014
  15. EPA (Environmental Protection Authority) (1997) Environmental Policy of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. EPA, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  16. Fessehaie R (2005) Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes): a review of its weed status in Ethiopia. In: Rezene Fessehaie (ed) Arem, vol 6, pp 105–111Google Scholar
  17. Fontenille D, Tato JC (2001) ‘Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), a Potential new dengue vector in southern Cameroon. Emerg Infect Dis 6(7):1066–1067Google Scholar
  18. Forpah N (2009) Cameroon prepares a national strategy for the control of water hyacinth (exotic species). In: Proceedings on the elaboration of a national strategy for the control of water hyacinth in Cameroon, 15–18 Sept 2009, Douala. http://www.unep.org/pdf/UNEP_GEAS_APRIL_2013.pdf. Accessed 12 June 2014
  19. Gichuki J, Omondi R, Boera P et al (2012) Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms-Laubach Dynamics and Succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (East Africa): implications for water quality and biodiversity conservation. The Scientific World J Vol 2012. doi: 10.1100/2012/106429
  20. GISP (2004) Africa invaded: the growing danger of invasive alien species. Global invasive Species Programme, Cape Town. http://www.gisp.org/downloadpubs/gisp%20africa%202.pdf. Accessed on 6 Feb 2015
  21. Gopal B (1987) Water hyacinth. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  22. Hedberg I, Kelbessa E, Edwards S et al (eds) (2006) Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol 5. Addis Ababa, The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa UniversityGoogle Scholar
  23. Hill M, Coetzee J (2013) Water hyacinth. In: Borgemeister C, Langewald J (eds) Biological control in IPM systems in Africa. WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  24. Holm LG, Plucknett DL, Pancho JV et al (1991) The world’s worst weeds, distribution and biology. Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  25. IUCN/SSC/ISSG (2004) Global invasive species database. IUCN—the World Conservation Union Species Survival Commission, Invasive Species Specialist Group. http://www.issg.org. Accessed on 6 Feb 2014
  26. Khan S, Sarwar KS (2002) Effect of water-hyacinth compost on physical, Physicochemical properties of soil and on rice yield. J Agron 1:64–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kirby A (2003) Alien species cost Africa billions. BBC News Science. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2730693.stm
  28. Levine JM, Vila M, D’Antonio CM et al (2003) Mechanisms underlying the impacts of exotic plant invasions. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol 270:775–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. MA (2006) Ecosystems and human well-being: current state and trends, vol 1. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Island Press, Washington. http://www.millenniumassessment.org//en/products. Accessed on 6 Feb 2015
  30. Mahamadi C (2011) Water hyacinth as a biosorbent. Afr J Environ Sci Technol 5(5):1137–1145Google Scholar
  31. Mara MJ (1976) Estimated costs of mechanical control of water hyacinths. J Environ Econ Manag 2(4):273–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McNeeley JA, Mooney HA, Neville LE et al (2001) Global strategy on invasive Alien Species. IUCN—the World Conservation Union, GlandGoogle Scholar
  33. Mujingni C (2012) Quantification of the impacts of Water Hyacinth on riparian communities in Cameroon and assessment of an appropriate method of control: the case of the River Wouri Basin. Thesis, World Maritime UniversityGoogle Scholar
  34. Muli JR (1996) Environmental problems in Lake Victoria (East Africa): What the international community can do. Lakes Reservoirs: Res Manag 2:47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ndimele P, Kumolu-Johnson C, Anetekhai M (2011) The invasive aquatic macrophyte, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solm-Laubach: Pontedericeae): problems and prospects. Res J Environ Sci 5:509–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ndimele PE, Jenyo-Oni A, Ayodele AI et al (2010) The phytoremedation of crude oil-polluted aquatic environment by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) Afr J Livest Extension 8:48–52Google Scholar
  37. NEPAD (2003) Action plan for the environment initiative. New Partnership for Africa’s Development, Midrand. http://nepad.org/2005/files/reports/action_plan/action_plan_english2.pdf. Accessed 6 June 2015
  38. Patel S (2012) Threats, management and envisaged utilizations of aquatic weed Eichhornia crassipes: an overview. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 11:249–259. doi: 10.1007/s11157-012-9289-4
  39. Preston G, Williams L (2003) Case study: the working for water programme: threats and successes. Serv Deliv Rev 2(2):66–69. http://www.dpsa.gov.za/documents/service_delivery_review/vol2no2. Accessed on 6 Feb 2015
  40. Pyšek P (1997) Clonality and plant invasions: can a trait make a difference? In: de Kroon H, van Groenendael J (eds) The ecology and evolution of clonal plants. Backhuys, Leiden, pp 405–427Google Scholar
  41. Rands M, Adams W, Bennun L et al (2010) Biodiversity conservation: challenges beyond 2010. Science 329:1298–1303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rejmánek M (1999) Invasive plant species and invasible ecosystems. In: Sandlund OT, Schei PJ, Vilken A (eds) Invasive species and biodiversity management. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 79–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rejmánek M, Pitcairn MI (2002) When is eradication of exotic pest plants a realistic goal? In: Veitch CR, Clout MN (eds) Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, pp 249–253Google Scholar
  44. Richardson DM, Allsopp N, D’Antonio C et al (2000) Plant invasions—the role of mutualisms. Biol Rev 75:65–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Richardson DM, van Wilgen BW (2004). Invasive alien plants in South Africa: how well do we understand the ecological impacts? S Afr J Sci 100:45–52. http://www.dwaf.gov.za/wfw/Docs/Papers/SAJSFeb2004richardson.pdf. Accessed on 6 Feb 2015
  46. Seid A (2014) A review on the biology and control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes): invasive Gust of the Pristine Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Proceedings of the Second Annual Science Conferance, ASC 2014, pp 161–180Google Scholar
  47. Shanab S, Shalaby E, Lightfoot D et al (2010) Allelopathic effects of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). PLoS ONE 5(10):e13200. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013200 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Téllez T, López E, Granado G et al (2008) The water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes: an invasive plant in the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Aquat Invasions 3:42–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tham HT (2012) Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)—biomass production, ensilability and feeding value to growing cattle. Doctoral thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Uppsala, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  50. Timmer CE, Weldon LW (1967) Evapotranspiration and pollution of water by water hyacinth. Hyacinth Control J l6:34–37Google Scholar
  51. Twongo T, Balirwa J (1995) The water hyacinth problem and the biological control option in the highland region of the Upper Nile Basin: Uganda’s experience. Paper presented at the 2002 Nile conference, “Comprehensive Water Resources Development of the Nile Basin,” Arusha, Tanzania, 13–17 Feb 1995Google Scholar
  52. Uka UN, Chukwuka KS, Daddy F (2007) Water hyacinth infestation and management in Nigeria inland waters: a review. J Plant Sci 2:480–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. UNEP (2004) Invasive aliens threaten biodiversity and increase vulnerability in Africa. Call to Action 1(1). United Nations Environment Programme, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  54. UNEP (2006) Africa Environment Outlook 2. Division of Early Warning and Assessment, United Nations Environment Programme, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  55. USBC (2008) Statistical Abstract of the United States 2008. U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  56. Vila M, Espinar J, Hejda M et al (2011) Ecological impacts of invasive alien plants: a meta-analysis of their effects on species, communities and ecosystems. Ecol Lett 14:702–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Villamagna A, Murphy B (2010) Ecological and socio-economic impacts of invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes): a review. Freshw Biol 55:282–298. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.2009.02294.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wanda FM (1997) The impact of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms (Pontederiaceae) on the abundance and diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates in northern Lake Victoria, Uganda. Thesis, International Institute of Infrastructural, Hydraulic and Environmental EngineeringGoogle Scholar
  59. Willoughby NG, Watson IG, Lauer S et al (1993) An investigation into the effects of water hyacinth on the biodiversity and abundance of fish and invertebrates in Lake Victoria, Uganda. NRI Project Number 10066 A0328. Accessed 23 Aug 2013Google Scholar
  60. Wittenberg R, Cock MJW (2001) Invasive Alien species: a toolkit of best prevention and management practices. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Xu H, Qiang S, Genovesi P et al (2012) An inventory of invasive alien species in China. NeoBiota 15:1–26. doi: 10.3897/neobiota.15.3575 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yirefu F, Tafesse A, Gebeyehu T et al (2007) Distribution, impact and management of water hyacinth at Wonji-Shewa Sugar Factory. Eth J Weed Manag 1(1):41–52Google Scholar
  63. Zhang Y, Zhang D, Barrett S (2010) Genetic uniformity characterizes the invasive spread of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a clonal aquatic plant. Molec Ecol 19:1774–1786CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Natural SciencesBahir Dar UniversityBahir DarEthiopia
  2. 2.College of Agriculture and Environmental SciencesBahir Dar UniversityBahir DarEthiopia

Personalised recommendations