An Algorithmic Framework for Labeling Road Maps

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9927)

Abstract

Given an unlabeled road map, we consider, from an algorithmic perspective, the cartographic problem of placing non-overlapping road labels embedded in the roads. We first decompose the road network into logically coherent road sections, i.e., parts of roads between two junctions. Based on this decomposition, we present and implement a new and versatile framework for placing labels in road maps such that the number of labeled road sections is maximized. In an experimental evaluation with road maps of 11 major cities we show that our proposed labeling algorithm is both fast in practice and that it reaches near-optimal solution quality, where optimal solutions are obtained by mixed-integer linear programming. In direct comparison, our algorithm consistently outperforms the standard OpenStreetMap renderer Mapnik.

Notes

Acknowledgment

We thank Andreas Gemsa for many interesting and inspiring discussions, and his help on the implementation.

References

  1. 1.
    Bader, M., Weibel, R.: Detecting and resolving size and proximity conflicts in the generalization of polygonal maps. In: International Cartographic Conference (ICC 1997), pp. 1525–1532 (1997)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chirié, F.: Automated name placement with high cartographic quality: city street maps. Cartogr. Geogr. Inf. Sci. 27(2), 101–110 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gemsa, A., Niedermann, B., Nöllenburg, M.: Label placement in road maps. In: Paschos, V.T., Widmayer, P. (eds.) CIAC 2015. LNCS, vol. 9079, pp. 221–234. Springer, Heidelberg (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Imhof, E.: Positioning names on maps. Am. Cartogr. 2(2), 128–144 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Maass, S., Döllner, J.: Embedded labels for line features in interactive 3D virtual environments. In: Computer Graphics, Virtual Reality, Visualisation and Interaction (AFRIGRAPH 2003), pp. 53–59. ACM (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Neyer, G., Wagner, F.: Labeling downtown. In: Bongiovanni, G., Petreschi, R., Gambosi, G. (eds.) CIAC 2000. LNCS, vol. 1767, pp. 113–124. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Niedermann, B., Nöllenburg, M.: An algorithmic framework for labeling road maps. CoRR. arXiv:1605.04265 (2016)
  8. 8.
    Reimer, A., Rylov, M.: Point-feature lettering of high cartographic quality: a multi-criteria model with practical implementation. In: EuroCG 2014 (2014)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schwartges, N., Wolff, A., Haunert, J.-H.: Labeling streets in interactive maps using embedded labels. In: Advances in Geographic Information Systems (ACM-GIS 2014), pp. 517–520. ACM (2014)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Seibert, S., Unger, W.: The hardness of placing street names in a Manhattan type map. Theor. Compt. Sci. 285, 89–99 (2002)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Strijk, T.: Geometric algorithms for cartographic label placement. Dissertation, Utrecht University (2001)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vaaraniemi, M., Treib, M., Westermann, R.: Temporally coherent real-time labeling of dynamic scenes. In: Computing for Geospatial Research Applications (COM. Geo 2012), pp. 17:1–17:10. ACM (2012)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    van Kreveld, M.: Geographic information systems. In: Handbook of Discrete and Computational Geometry, 2nd edn., Chap. 58, pp. 1293–1314. CRC Press (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wolff, A., Strijk, T.: The map labeling bibliography (2009). http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Theory/map.labeling.html

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Karlsruhe Institute of TechnologyKarlsruheGermany
  2. 2.TU WienViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations