Advertisement

Obstacles and Challenges in the Use of Gamification for Virtual Idea Communities

  • Christian Scheiner
  • Philipp Haas
  • Ulrich Bretschneider
  • Ivo Blohm
  • Jan Marco Leimeister
Chapter
Part of the Progress in IS book series (PROIS)

Abstract

Virtual idea communities (VIC) are a relatively new phenomenon in business. These communities, in which distributed groups of individual customers focus on voluntarily sharing and elaborating innovation ideas, are used by firms to integrate customers into the ideation for new product development rooted in Chesbrough’s (2003) open innovation paradigm. Developers and decision makers realised especially within the last decade that games or game-like appeals could serve as appropriate gamifications to attract people to participate in VICs. Therefore, gamification gained momentum and has been widely implemented into VICs. The use of gamification does, however, not lead to the intended positive outcomes per se. Because of that, obstacles and challenges in the use of gamification have to be considered, but these have often been neglected in practice. Therefore, the goal of this chapter is to address this topic and to describe major obstacles and challenges in the use of gamification in VICs.

Keywords

Product Development Intrinsic Motivation Game Design Open Source Community Enjoyable Experience 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Afuah, A. N., & Tucci, C. (2012). Crowdsourcing as a solution to distant search. Academy of Management Review, 37(3), 355–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amabile, T. M. (1979). Effects of external evaluation on artistic creativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 221–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antikainen, M., Mäkipää, M., et al. (2010). Motivating and supporting collaboration in open innovation. European Journal of Innovation Management, 13(1), 100–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Belman, J., & Flanagan, M. (2010). Exploring the creative potential of values conscious game design: Students’ experiences with the vap curriculum. Eludamos. Journal for Computer Game Culture, 4(1), 57–67.Google Scholar
  5. Bessière, K., Seay, A. F., & Kiesler, S. (2007). The ideal elf: Identity exploration in world of warcraft. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10(4), 530–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bjork, S., & Holopainen, J. (2004). Patterns in game design (Game Development Series). Boston, MA: Charles River MediaOrt.Google Scholar
  7. Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. London: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  8. Blohm, I., & Leimeister, J. M. (2013). Gamification: Design of It-based enhancing services for motivational support and behavioral change. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 5(4), 275–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bogost, I. (2011). Gamification is bullshit. http://bogost.com/writing/blog/gamification_is_bullshit/
  10. Bretschneider, U., Leimeister, J. M., & Mathiassen, L. (2015). IT-enabled product innovation: Customer motivation for participating in virtual idea communities. International Journal of Product Development, 20(2), 126–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bruner, J. S. (2009). Actual minds, possible worlds. London: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Buckler, S. A., & Zien, K. A. (1996). The spirituality of innovation: Learning from stories. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 13(5), 391–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Byrne, E. (2005). Game level design. Boston: Charles River Media.Google Scholar
  14. Calvillo-Gámez, E. H., Cairns, P., & Cox, A. L. (2010). Assessing the core elements of the gaming experience, evaluating user experience in games (pp. 47–71). London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carroll, J. M. (1982). The adventure of getting to know a computer.Computer 15(11), 49–58.Google Scholar
  16. Carroll, J. M., & Thomas, J. C. (1982). Metaphor and the cognitive representation of computing systems. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 12(2), 107–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chesbrough, H. (2003). The era of open innovation. Sloan Management Review, 44(4), 35–41.Google Scholar
  18. Crumlish, C., & Malone, E. (2009). Designing social interfaces: Principles, patterns, and practices for improving the user experience. Sebastopol: O’Reilly Media Inc.Google Scholar
  19. Dahan, E., & Hauser, J. R. (2002). The virtual customer. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 19(5), 332–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Danet, B., & Katriel, T. (1989). No two alike: Play and aesthetics in collecting. Interpreting Objects and Collections, 2(3), 253–277.Google Scholar
  21. Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125(6), 627–668 (discussion 692–700).Google Scholar
  22. Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (2011). From game design elements to gamefulness: Defining gamification. In Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments: ACM (pp. 9–15).Google Scholar
  23. Di Gangi, P. M., & Wasko, M. (2009). Steal my idea! organizational adoption of user innovations from a user innovation community: A case study of dell ideastorm. Decision Support Systems, 48, 303–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Frank, R. H. (1985). Choosing the right pond: Human behavior and the quest for status. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Franke, N., & Piller, F. (2004). Value creation by toolkits for user innovation and design: The case of the watch market. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 21(6), 401–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Füller, J. (2006). Why consumers engage in virtual new product developments initiated by producers. Advances in Consumer Research, 33, 639–647.Google Scholar
  27. Füller, J., Jawecki, G., & Mühlbacher, H. (2007). Innovation creation by online basketball communities. Journal of Business Research, 60(1), 60–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fullerton, T. (2014). Game design workshop: A playcentric approach to creating innovative games. Burlington: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  29. Fullerton, T., Swain, C., & Hoffman, S. (2004). Game design workshop: Designing, prototyping, & playtesting games. Lawrence: KS CMP Books.Google Scholar
  30. Haas, P., Scheiner, C., Witt, M., Baccarella, C., & Leicht, N. (2013). Der Einfluss Von Gamification Auf Die Empfundene Selbstwirksamkeit Von Teilnehmern Von Online-Ideengenerierungswettbewerben Über Die Zeit, GI-Jahrestagung, 2321–2335.Google Scholar
  31. Hacker, S., & Von Ahn, L. (2009). Matchin: Eliciting user preferences with an online game. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: ACM (pp. 1207–1216).Google Scholar
  32. Hamari, J., & Lehdonvirta, V. (2010). Game design as marketing: How game mechanics create demand for virtual goods. International Journal of Business Science and Applied Management, 5(1), 14–29.Google Scholar
  33. Hassenzahl, M. (2004). The Thing and I: Understanding the relationship between user and product. In A. B. Mark, O. Kees, F. M. Andrew, & C. W. Peter (Eds.), Funology (pp. 31–42). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  34. Henle, M. (1962). The birth and death of ideas. Contemporary approaches to creative thinking. In G. Gruber, G. Terrel, & M. Wertheimer (Eds.) (pp. 31–62). New York: Athrton.Google Scholar
  35. Hoch, D., Roeding, C., & Lindner, S. K. (1999). Secrets of software success. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  36. Holmström, B. (1999). Managerial incentive problems. A dynamic perspective. Review of Economic Studies, 66, 169–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Huotari, K., & Hamari, J. (2012). Defining gamification: A service marketing perspective. In Proceeding of the 16th International Academic MindTrek Conference: ACM (pp. 17–22).Google Scholar
  38. Isbister, K., & Schaffer, N. (2008). Game usability: Advancing the player experience. London: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  39. Jakobsson, M. (2002). Rest in peace, bill the bot: Death and life in virtual worlds. In The social life of avatars (pp. 63–76). London: Springer.Google Scholar
  40. Jeppesen, L., & Frederiksen, L. (2006). Why do users contribute to firm-hosted user communities? The case of computer-controlled music instruments. Organizational Science, 17(1), 45–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jokisch, M. (2007). Active integration of users into the innovation process of a manufacturer: The BMW customer innovation lab. Munich: Hut.Google Scholar
  42. Lee, J. J., & Hammer, J. (2011). Gamification in education: What, how, why bother? Academic Exchange Quarterly, 15(2), 1–5.Google Scholar
  43. Leimeister, J. M., Huber, M., Bretschneider, U., & Krcmar, H. (2009). Leveraging crowdsourcing: Activation-supporting components for it-based ideas competitions. Journal of Management Information Systems, 26(1), 197–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lepper, M. R., Henderlong, J., & Gingras, I. (1999). Understanding the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation–uses and abuses of meta-analysis: Comment on Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). Psychological Bulletin, 125(6), 669–676 (discussion 692–700).Google Scholar
  45. Long, M. M., & Schiffman, L. G. (1997). Swatch fever: An allegory for understanding the paradox of collecting. Psychology & Marketing, 14(5), 495–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mallon, B., & Webb, B. (2000). Structure. Causality, visibility and interaction: Propositions for evaluating engagement in narrative multimedia, international journal of human-computer studies, 53(2), 269–287.Google Scholar
  47. Malone, T. W. (1981). Toward a theory of intrinsically motivating instruction. Cognitive Science, 5(4), 333–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Maslow, A. H. (1987). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  49. McGuire, M., & Jenkins, O. C. (2008). Creating games: Mechanics, content, and technology. Wellesley: A. K. Peters Ltd./CRC Press.Google Scholar
  50. McKenna, K. Y., & Bargh, J. A. (2000). Plan 9 from cyberspace: The implications of the internet for personality and social psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4(1), 57–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Motzek, R. (2007). Motivation in open innovation: An exploratory study on user innovators. Saarbrücken: VDM.Google Scholar
  52. Nambisan, S. (2002). Designing virtual customer environments for new product development: Toward a theory. Academy of Management Review, 27(3), 392–413.Google Scholar
  53. Petkov, P., Köbler, F., Foth, M., Medland, R., & Krcmar, H. (2011). Engaging energy saving through motivation-specific social comparison. In CHI’11 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems: ACM (pp. 1945–1950).Google Scholar
  54. Piller, F. T., & Walcher, D. (2006). Toolkits for idea competitions: A novel method to integrate users in new product development. R&D Management, 36(3), 307–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Reeves, B., & Read, J. L. (2009). Total engagement: Using games and virtual worlds to change the way people work and businesses compete. New York: Harvard Business Review Press.Google Scholar
  56. Salen, K., & Zimmerman, E. (2004). Rules of play: Game design fundamentals. Cambridge: MIT University Press Group Ltd.Google Scholar
  57. Schattke, K., Seeliger, J., Schiepe-Tiska, A., & Kehr, H. M. (2012). Activity-related incentives as motivators in open innovation communities. International Journal of Knowledge-Based Organizations, 2(1), 21–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Scheiner, C. W. (2015). The motivational fabric of gamified idea competitions: The evaluation of game mechanics from a longitudinal pespective. Creativity and Innovation Management, 24(2), 341–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Scheiner, C. (2014). The motivational fabric of gamified idea competitions–the evaluation of game mechanics from a longitudinal perspective. Creativity and Innovation Management, 24(2), 341–352.Google Scholar
  60. Scheiner, C. W., & Witt, M. (2013). The backbone of gamification-a theoretical consideration of play and game mechanics. GI-Jahrestagung, 2372–2386.Google Scholar
  61. Schell, J. (2008). The art of game design. Burlington: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.Google Scholar
  62. Simões, J., Redondo, R. D., & Vilas, A. F. (2013). A social gamification framework for a K-6 learning platform. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(2), 345–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sun, C.-T., Lin, H., & Ho, C. H. (2006). Sharing tips with strangers: Exploiting gift culture in computer gaming. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 9(5), 560–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Taylor, T. (2009). The assemblage of play. Games and Culture, 4(4), 331–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Thompson, J., Berbank-Green, B., & Cusworth, N. (2007). Game design: Principles, practice, and techniques-the ultimate guide for the aspiring game designer. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  66. Von Ahn, L., & Dabbish, L. (2008). Designing games with a purpose. Communications of the ACM, 51(8), 58–67.Google Scholar
  67. Werbach, K., & Hunter, D. (2012). For the win: how game thinking can revolutionize your business. Philadelphia: Wharton Digital Press.Google Scholar
  68. Witt, M., Scheiner, C., Robra-Bissantz, S., & Voigt, K.-I. (2012). Creative process engagement in a multiplayer online ideation game. GI-Jahrestagung, 978–991.Google Scholar
  69. Zhang, P. (2008). Technical opinion motivational affordances: Reasons for Ict design and use. Communications of the ACM, 51(11), 145–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Scheiner
    • 1
  • Philipp Haas
    • 2
  • Ulrich Bretschneider
    • 3
  • Ivo Blohm
    • 2
  • Jan Marco Leimeister
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.University of LübeckLübeckGermany
  2. 2.University of St. GallenSt. GallenSwitzerland
  3. 3.University of KasselKasselGermany

Personalised recommendations