Ontological Considerations About the Representation of Events and Endurants in Business Models

  • Giancarlo GuizzardiEmail author
  • Nicola Guarino
  • João Paulo A. Almeida
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9850)


Different disciplines have been established to deal with the representation of entities of different ontological natures: the business process modeling discipline focuses mostly on event-like entities, and, in contrast, the (structural) conceptual modeling discipline focuses mostly on object-like entities (known as endurants in the ontology literature). In this paper, we discuss the impact of the event vs. endurant divide for conceptual models, showing that a rich ontological account is required to bridge this divide. Accounting for the ontological differences in events and endurants as well as their relations can lead to a more comprehensive representation of business reality.


Events Endurants Reification Conceptual modeling Ontology 



This research is partially funded by the Brazilian Research Funding Agencies CNPq (grants # 311313/2014-0, 485368/2013-7, 312158/2015-7 and 461777/2014-2) and FAPES (# 69382549). The authors would like to thank Roel Wieringa, Alex Borgida and John Mylopoulos for comments and fruitful discussions on the topics of this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giancarlo Guizzardi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Nicola Guarino
    • 2
  • João Paulo A. Almeida
    • 1
  1. 1.Federal University of Espírito SantoVitóriaBrazil
  2. 2.ISTC-CNR Laboratory for Applied OntologyTrentoItaly

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