Assessment of Secondary Mitral Regurgitation

  • Raluca Dulgheru
  • Pierluigi Incarnato
  • Patrizio LancellottiEmail author


Chronic secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR) is a complex entity that complicates either ischemic heart disease or dilated cardiomyopathy. When present, SMR may exhibit a broad range of severity and confers an adverse prognosis, which is worse with increasing severity of MR. Non-invasive imaging and, in particular, echocardiography, plays a critical role for the initial and longitudinal assessment, for individual risk stratification and outcome prediction, and for guiding intervention in patients with chronic SMR.


Secondary mitral regurgitation 2D and 3D echocardiography Quantification Prognosis Heart failure 

Supplementary material

Movie 6.1

Apical displacement of the coaptation point of the mitral valve leaflets in a patient with secondary mitral regurgitation and systolic heart failure (AVI 8231 kb)

Movie 6.2

Papillary muscle elongation leading to a type II Carpentier mitral regurgitation (AVI 8133 kb)

Movie 6.3

Flow convergence area is hemielliptic in this patient with chronic secondary mitral regurgitation, as depicted with the help of 3D colour flow Doppler transthoracic echocardiography. Applying the PISA 2D method may lead to underestimation of effective regurgitant orifice area and regurgitant volume (AVI 1240 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raluca Dulgheru
    • 1
  • Pierluigi Incarnato
    • 1
  • Patrizio Lancellotti
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.University of Liège Hospital, GIGA Cardiovascular Sciences, Departments of Cardiology, Heart Valve Clinic, CHU Sart TilmanLiègeBelgium
  2. 2.Gruppo Villa Maria Care and ResearchAnthea HospitalBariItaly

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