Planning of Maintenance Resources for the Service of Offshore Wind Turbines by Means of Simulation

  • Stephan OelkerEmail author
  • Abderrahim Ait Alla
  • Marco Lewandowski
  • Michael Freitag
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Logistics book series (LNLO)


In the last decade, the erection of offshore wind turbines, especially in the northern sea, has been showing a significant growth and this trend will continue further in the next years. In order to make the offshore wind energy competitive and attractive, the different processes related to the overall life cycle cost of an offshore wind farm have to be optimized. In this context, the cost for operation and maintenance (O&M) is estimated between 15 and 30 % of the total costs generated by offshore wind farms. Thereby, the efficiency of the maintenance processes is a crucial factor to guarantee sustainable energy and improve the reliability and availability of an offshore wind turbine. Indeed, the maintenance activities in the offshore field are a challenging task especially due to the harsh maritime environment which leads to high material stress and low resource utilization. In this paper, we model the maintenance processes of an offshore wind farm by means of a discrete event and agent -based simulation model. The objective is to schedule the maintenance tasks taking into account all real restrictions based on historical data in order to determine important factors and potential operational improvement. As an example, the simulation will be used to determine the optimal number of resources needed to perform maintenance activities by keeping the resource utilization in an acceptable level.


Operation and maintenance Offshore wind park Simulation 



This work is part of the preInO project, funded by the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi; funding code 0325587A).


  1. Andrawus JA, Watson J, Kishk M (2007) Wind turbine maintenance optimisation: principles of quantitative maintenance optimisation. Wind Eng 31(2):101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AnyLogic (2015) Accessed 24 Oct 2015
  3. Barth V, Canadillas B, Neumann T, Westerhellweg A, Neddermann B (2012) Abschätzung des Energieangebotes. In: Handbuch Offshore-Windenergie. Rechtliche, technische und wirtschaftliche Aspekte. München: Oldenbourg, R, pp 396–422Google Scholar
  4. Besnard F, Fischer K, Tjernberg LB (2013) A model for the optimization of the maintenance support organization for offshore wind farms. IEEE Trans Sustain Energy 4(2):443–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Byon E, Pérez E, Ding Y, Ntaimo L (2011) Simulation of wind farm operations and maintenance using discrete event system specification. Simulation 87(12):1093–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hofmann M, Sperstad IB (2013) NOWIcob—a tool for reducing the maintenance costs of offshore wind farms. Energy Procedia 35:177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Krokoszinski HJ (2003) Efficiency and effectiveness of wind farms—keys to cost optimized operation and maintenance. Renew Energy 28(14):2165–2178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Martin R, Lazakis I, Barbouchi S, Johanning L (2016) Sensitivity analysis of offshore wind farm operation and maintenance cost and availability. Renew Energy 85:1226–1236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Matyas K (2002) Ganzheitliche Optimierung durch individuelle Instandhaltungsstrategien. Industrie Management 18(2):13–16Google Scholar
  10. Netland Ø, Sperstad IB, Hofmann M, Skavhaug A (2014) Cost-benefit evaluation of remote inspection of offshore wind farms by simulating the operation and maintenance phase. Energy Procedia 53:239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Rademakers L, Braam H, Obdam T, Frohböse P, Kruse N (2008) Tools for estimating operation and maintenance costs of offshore wind farms: state of the art. In: Proceedings of EWEC 2008Google Scholar
  12. Rohing K (2014) Windenergie Report Deutschland 2013Google Scholar
  13. Schenk M (2010) Instandhaltung technischer Systeme. Methoden und Werkzeuge zur Gewährleistung eines sicheren und wirtschaftlichen Anlagenbetriebs. Springer, Berlin, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  14. Scheu M, Matha D, Hofmann M, Muskulus M (2012) Maintenance strategies for large offshore wind farms. Energy Procedia 24:281–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Shafiee M (2015) Maintenance logistics organization for offshore wind energy: current progress and future perspectives. Renew Energy 77:182–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephan Oelker
    • 1
    Email author
  • Abderrahim Ait Alla
    • 1
  • Marco Lewandowski
    • 1
  • Michael Freitag
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.BIBA – Bremer Institut für Produktion und Logistik GmbH at the University of BremenBremenGermany
  2. 2.Faculty of Production EngineeringUniversity of BremenBremenGermany

Personalised recommendations