Reconciliation, Peacebuilding and Indigenous Peoples in Australia
The Australian Constitution that ‘created’ Australia as a nation in 1901, prevented the new Australian Commonwealth government from legislating on Indigenous Affairs, a power the Constitution reserved for the lower tier of State governments. In 1967, an Australian Constitutional Referendum was passed, that granted, for the first time power to the Australian Commonwealth governments to legislate on Indigenous Affairs. This chapter examines almost fifty years of Commonwealth government involvement in Indigenous Affairs. Specifically, the chapter examines Commonwealth government involvement in Indigenous rights, including self-determination, land rights and native title. The chapter argues that, overwhelmingly, the Commonwealth governments have failed to genuinely acknowledge and recognise these rights.
KeywordsAboriginal Australian governments Indigenous Affairs Indigenous rights National Aboriginal Conference Policies Self-determination
- Attwood, B.; Markus, A., 1999: The Struggle for Aboriginal Rights: A Documentary History (St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin).Google Scholar
- ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation), 1991: Reconciliation (Sydney, NSW: ABC).Google Scholar
- Australian Parliament, Senate, 1985: Senate Hansard (109 CPD 2961).Google Scholar
- Baume, P., 1981: Senate Hansard (88 CPD 713).Google Scholar
- Behrendt, L., 2003: Achieving Social Justice: Indigenous Rights and Australia’s Future (Sydney, NSW: The Federation Press).Google Scholar
- Behrendt, L., 2008: “Rethinking Indigenous Policy”, in: The Age, 25 August: 13.Google Scholar
- Bennett, S., 1999: White Politics and Black Australians (St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin).Google Scholar
- Brennan, F., 1991: Sharing the Country (Ringwood, Victoria: Penguin).Google Scholar
- Broome, R., 1982: Aboriginal Australians (North Sydney, NSW: Allen & Unwin).Google Scholar
- Commonwealth Government, 2002: Commonwealth Government Response to the Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation, Reconciliation: Australia’s Challenge (Canberra, ACT).Google Scholar
- CAR (Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation), 1994: Walking Together: the First Steps—Report of the Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation to Federal Parliament 1991–94 (Canberra, ACT: Australian Government Publishing Service).Google Scholar
- Davis, M., 2014: “‘Political Timetables Trump Workable Timetables’: Indigenous Constitutional Recognition and the Temptation of Symbolism over Substance”, in: Indigenous Law Bulletin 8, 15: 6–10.Google Scholar
- DPMC (Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet), 1991: Aboriginal Reconciliation—an Historical Perspective (Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service).Google Scholar
- Evans, G., 1983: Senate Hansard (98 CPD 459).Google Scholar
- Foley, G., 2007: “The Australian Labor Party and the Native Title Act”, in: Moreton-Robinson, A. (Ed.): Sovereign Subjects (Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin): 122–123.Google Scholar
- Forbes, M., 1998: “Downer Fears Phrase will Split Australia”, in: The Age, 22 August: 7.Google Scholar
- Gunstone, A., 2009: Unfinished Business: The Australian Formal Reconciliation Process (Melbourne, Victoria: Australian Scholarly Publishing).Google Scholar
- Harris, S., 1979: It’s Coming Yet (Canberra, ACT: The Aboriginal Treaty Committee).Google Scholar
- Howard, J., 1996: “Improving Accountability in Aboriginal Affairs”. Press Release, 10 April.Google Scholar
- Johns, G., 2006: “The Land Rights Initiative has Failed”, in: The Australian, 7 February: 12.Google Scholar
- Keating, P., 2000: “The Redfern Park Speech”, in: Grattan, M. (Ed.): Essays on Australian Reconciliation (Melbourne, Victoria: Bookman Press): 62.Google Scholar
- Kelly, P., 2001: 100 Years—The Australian Story (Crows Nest, NSW: Allen and Unwin).Google Scholar
- Lavelle, A., 2000: “The Mining Industry’s Campaign Against Native Title: Some Explanations”, in: Australian Journal of Political Science 36, 1: 101–122.Google Scholar
- Mansell, M., 1992: “The Court Gives an Inch but Takes Another Mile”, in: The Aboriginal Provisional Government Papers Volume 1 (Hobart, Tasmania: Deep South Sovereign Publications).Google Scholar
- Mansell, M., 1993: “Australians and Aborigines and the Mabo Decision: Just Who Needs Whom the Most?”, in: Hocking, B. (Ed.): Essays on the Mabo Decision (Sydney, NSW: Law Book Company).Google Scholar
- Mitchell, B., 2000: “Indigenous Leaders Persist on Treaty”, in: The Australian 6 June: 2.Google Scholar
- Neill, R., 2002: White Out: How Politics is Killing Black Australia (Crows Nest, NSW: Allen and Unwin).Google Scholar
- Nicoll, F., 1998: “Backlash: Reconciliation after Wik”, in: Meanjin 1: 179.Google Scholar
- Pollard, D., 1988: Give & Take: The Losing Partnership in Aboriginal Poverty (Marrickville, NSW: Hale & Iremonger).Google Scholar
- Saunders, M.; Nason, D., 2000: “Howard Firm: No Black Treaty”, in: The Australian 30 May: 1.Google Scholar
- Sutton, P., 2008: “Twilight of the Old Radicals—The Indigenous Future”, in: The Weekend Australian 9 August: 26.Google Scholar
- Wright, J., 1985: We Call for a Treaty (Sydney, NSW: Fontana).Google Scholar
- Wright, T.; Taylor, K., 2000: “PM Rule out ‘Divisive’ Treaty”, in: The Age 30 May: 2.Google Scholar
- Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), “Call for unity on Parliament’s first day”; at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2010-09-28/call-for-unity-on-parliaments-first-day/2276618 (15 September 2012).
- Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), “Julia Gillard wants Indigenous people recognised in Constitution”; at: http://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2010/s3060559.htm (15 September 2012).
- Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), “Turnbull keeping Indigenous Advisory Council”; at: http://www.abc.net.au/am/content/2015/s4317947.htm (1 November 2015).
- Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), “Indigenous leaders call on Malcolm Turnbull to reverse ‘disaster’ portfolio shift”; at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-09-17/indigenous-leaders-call-on-turnbull-to-reverse-decision-on-port/6784954 (1 November 2015).
- Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), “Senator Cory Bernardi warns ‘divisive’ Indigenous constitutional referendum ‘doomed to fail’”; at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-05-21/senator-warns-against-divisive-indigenous-referendum/6485538 (1 November 2015).
- Australian Government, “Prime Minister’s Indigenous Advisory Council, About”; at: http://iac.dpmc.gov.au/about (1 November 2015).
- Castan, M., Constitutional Recognition: Two Steps Forward After One Step Back; at: https://theconversation.com/constitutional-recognition-two-steps-forward-after-one-step-back-46424 (1 November 2015).
- Coorey, P.; Davis, M., “Welcome Ritual Marks Opening of Parliament”, Sydney Morning Herald 13 February 2008; at: http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/welcome-ritual-marks-opening-of-parliament/2008/02/12/1202760301385.html (16 September 2012).
- Gillard, J., Prime Ministerial Statement: “Closing the Gap”’, Speech 15 February 2012.Google Scholar
- Gillard, J.; Macklin, J.; Crossin, T., “Delivering a Better Future for Indigenous People in the Northern Territory, Media Release 22 June 2011.Google Scholar
- Kildea, P., “Confidence Must be Rebuilt After PM Shoots down Indigenous Leaders’ plan”; at: https://theconversation.com/confidence-must-be-rebuilt-after-pm-shoots-down-indigenous-leaders-plan-45693 (1 November 2015).
- National Congress (National Congress of Australia’s First Peoples), “Concern over Impact of the Budget on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples”; at: http://nationalcongress.com.au/congress-2014-budget-response (1 November 2015).
- National IndigenousTimes, “Abbott Refuses to Listen to Advisory Council”.Google Scholar
- Rudd, K., “Apology to Australia’s Indigenous Peoples”, House of Representatives, Parliament House, Canberra, 13 February 2008; at: http://www.pm.gov.au/media/speech/2008/speech_0073.cfm (17 September 2008).
- Rudd, K., Press Conference Nhulunbuy, North East Arnhem Land, 23 July 2008; http://www.pm.gov.au/media/interview/2008/interview_0375.cfm (17 September 2008).
- Rudd, K., Press Conference Parliament House, Canberra, 28 January 2008; at: http://www.pm.gov.au/media/interview/2008/interview_0047.cfm (17 September 2008).
- Rudd, K., “Interview with Karen Middleton”, SBS TV News, Media Interview 20 April 2008; at: http://www.pm.gov.au/media/interview/2008/interview_0212.cfm (17 September 2008).