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Cellular Damage

  • Caetano Padial SabinoEmail author
  • Michael Richard Hamblin
Chapter

Abstract

Classical pharmacology is normally concerned with defined molecular structures that can bind to specific proteins and either inhibit or enhance the protein function to achieve some biological response with therapeutic benefit. In photodynamic therapy (PDT) context, we rarely rely on such target specificity to achieve therapeutic success. Although some recent photosensitizers have been functionalized with target-specific molecules, such as antibodies, to recognize specific cells and enhance therapy specificity, ROS produced inside the cell will damage all susceptible molecules within the diffusion radius. According to the previous chapter, both hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen are highly reactive toward most of the abundant biological molecules contained in cells. In this chapter we discuss how such capacity of PDT to provoke multiple sites of molecular damages in the cellular context is associated with the phototoxicity produced. Also, we discuss how cellular antioxidant and xenobiotic defenses can influence on cellular tolerance against photodynamic inactivation.

Keywords

Reactive Oxygen Species Singlet Oxygen Gentian Violet Photodynamic Inactivation Diffusion Radius 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Mr. Hamblin was supported by the US NIH Grant R01AI050875.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Caetano Padial Sabino
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Michael Richard Hamblin
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, Institute for Biomedical SciencesUniversity of São PauloSao PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of São PauloSao PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Center for Lasers and Applications, Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, National Commission for Nuclear EnergySao PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Wellman Center for PhotomedicineMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  5. 5.Department of DermatologyHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  6. 6.Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and TechnologyCambridgeUSA

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