Hair and Scalp

  • Margo Gkini
  • Mario Goisis
  • Sara Izzo


Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has attracted significant attention in the fields of tissue engineering, wound healing, and angiogenesis over the last decades [1, 2]. The regenerative potential of PRP depends on the growth factors (GFs) that are released upon platelets’ activation, which appear to enhance angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and cellular effects as cell proliferation and differentiation [1, 3–5]. In 2006, Uebel et al. used PRP during hair transplantation in male patients with androgenetic alopecia [3, 6–8]. After that, more trials followed evaluating the efficacy of PRP in androgenetic alopecia both in men and women.


  1. 1.
    Arora NS, Ramanayake T, Ren YF, Romanos GE. Platelet-rich plasma: a literature review. Implant Dent. 2009 Aug;18(4):303–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Marx RE. Platelet-rich plasma: evidence to support its use. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;62:489–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Eppley BL, Woodell JE, Higgins J. Platelet quantification and growth factor analysis from platelet-rich plasma: implications for wound healing. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;114:1502–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Weibrich G, Kleis WK, Hafner G, Hitzler WE. Growth factor levels in platelet-rich plasma and correlations with donor age, sex, and platelet count. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2002;30:97–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gkini MA, Kouskoukis AE, Rigopoulos D, Kouskoukis K. Platelet-rich plasma as a potential treatment for noncicatricial alopecias. Int J Trichology. 2015;7(2):54–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Uebel CO, da Silva JB, Cantarelli D, Martins P. The role of platelet plasma growth factors in male pattern baldness surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;118:1458–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Marx RE. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP): what is PRP and what is not PRP? Implant Dent. 2001;10:225–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rodrigues SV, Acharya AB, Thakur SL. Platelet-rich plasma. A review. N Y State Dent J. 2012;78(1):26–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sánchez-González DJ, Méndez-Bolaina E, Trejo-Bahena NI. Platelet-rich plasma peptides: key for regeneration. Int J Pept. 2012;2012:532519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Su HY, Hickford JG, The PH, Hill AM, Frampton CM, Bickerstaffe R. Increased vibrissa growth in transgenic mice expressing insulin-like growth factor 1. J Invest Dermatol. 1999;112:245–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tavakkol A, Elder JT, Griffiths CE, Cooper KD, Talwar H, Fisher GJ, Keane KM, Foltin SK, Voorhees JJ. Expression of growth hormone receptor, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-1 receptor mRNA and proteins in human skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1992;99(3):343–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Arshdeep, Kumaran MS. Platelet-rich plasma in dermatology: boon or a bane? Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2014;80:5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kamp H, Geilen CC, Sommer C, Blume-Peytavi U. Regulation of PDGF and PDGF receptor in cultured dermal papilla cells and follicular keratinocytes of the human hair follicle. Exp Dermatol. 2003;12:662–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tomita Y, Akiyama M, Shimizu H. PDGF isoforms induce and maintain anagen phase of murine hair follicles. J Dermatol Sci. 2006;43:105–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Takakura N, Yoshida H, Kunisada T, Nishikawa S, Nishikawa SI. Involvement of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha in hair canal formation. J Invest Dermatol. 1996;107:770–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Blumeyer A, Tosti A, Messenger A, Reygagne P, Del Marmol V, Spuls PI, Trakatelli M, Finner A, Kiesewetter F, Trüeb R, Rzany B, Blume-Peytavi U, European Dermatology Forum (EDF). Evidence-based (S3) guideline for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women and in men. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2011;9(Suppl 6):S1–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gkini MA, Kouskoukis AE, Tripsianis G, Rigopoulos D, Kouskoukis K. Study of platelet-rich plasma injections in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia through an one-year period. J Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2014;7(4):213–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mubki T, Rudnicka L, Olszewska M, Shapiro J. Evaluation and diagnosis of the hair loss patient: part I. History and clinical examination. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;71(3):415.e1–415.e15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mubki T, Rudnicka L, Olszewska M, Shapiro J. Evaluation and diagnosis of the hair loss patient: part II. Trichoscopic and laboratory evaluations. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;71(3):431.e1–431.e11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Won C. Hair growth promoting effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells. J Dermatol Sci. 2010;57:132–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Danilenko DM, Ring BD, Pierce GF. Growth factors and cytokines in hair follicle development and cycling: recent insights from animal models and the potentials for clinical therapy. Mol Med Today. 1996;2:460–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Limat A, Hunziker T, Waelti ER, Inaebnit SP, Wiesmann U, Braathen LR. Soluble factors from human hair papilla cells and dermal fibroblasts dramatically increase the clonal growth of outer root sheath cells. Arch Dermatol Res. 1993;285:205–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kim WS, Park BS, Kim HK, Park JS, Kim KJ, Choi JS, et al. Evidence supporting antioxidant action of adipose-derived stem cells: protection of human dermal fibroblasts from oxidative stress. J Dermatol Sci. 2008;49:133–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Park BS, Jang KA, Sung JH, Park JS, Kwon YH, Kim KJ, et al. Adipose-derived stem cells and their secretory factors as a promising therapy for skin aging. Dermatol Surg. 2008;34:1323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shin H, Ryu HH, Kwon O, Park BS, Jo SJ. Clinical use of conditioned media of adipose tissue-derived stem cells in female pattern hair loss: a retrospective case series study. Int J Dermatol. 2015;54(6):730–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fukuoka H, Suga H. Hair regeneration treatment using adipose-derived stem cell conditioned medium: follow-up with trichograms. Eplasty. 2015;15:e10.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Li ZJ, Choi HI, Choi DK, Sohn KC, Im M, Seo YJ, Lee YH, Lee JH, Lee Y. Autologous platelet-rich plasma: a potential therapeutic tool for promoting hair growth. Dermatol Surg. 2012;38(7 Pt 1):1040–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margo Gkini
    • 1
  • Mario Goisis
    • 2
  • Sara Izzo
    • 3
  1. 1.Doctor’s EquipeMilanItaly
  2. 2.Maxillo-Facial and Aesthetic SurgeonGo Easy ClinicMilanItaly
  3. 3.Department of Plastic SurgeryUniversity of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”NaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations