The Foot

  • Mario Goisis
  • Sara Izzo
  • Alessandro Di Petrillo


The human foot is a strong, complex mechanical structure containing 26 bones, 33 joints (20 of which are actively articulated), and more than a hundred muscles, tendons, and ligaments. The muscles acting on the foot can be divided into extrinsic muscles, those originating in the anterior or posterior area of the lower leg, and intrinsic muscles, originating in the dorsal (top) or plantar (base) area of the foot. The foot is formed by the dorsum and the planum.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario Goisis
    • 1
  • Sara Izzo
    • 2
  • Alessandro Di Petrillo
    • 3
  1. 1.Maxillo-Facial and Aesthetic SurgeonGo Easy ClinicMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of Plastic SurgeryUniversity of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”NaplesItaly
  3. 3.Doctor’s EquipeMilanItaly

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