Pre-clinical and Clinical Management of Osteochondral Lesions

  • Sandra Pina
  • Viviana Ribeiro
  • Joaquim Miguel Oliveira
  • Rui Luís Reis
Part of the Studies in Mechanobiology, Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials book series (SMTEB, volume 21)


The majority of osteochondral (OC) lesions occur after injury or trauma of both bone and the overlying cartilage, and symptoms are pain and disability, leading to the risk of inducing osteoarthritis. These lesions are currently repaired by non-surgical and surgical methods or by advanced tissue engineering strategies, which require a proof of efficacy and safety for regulatory approval for human application. Pre-clinical studies using animal models have been the support of OC repair and regeneration with successful clinical outcomes. Small animal models as mice and rabbits, and large animal models as sheep, goats and horses, have been most commonly used according with the outcome goals. Small animals are recommended as a proof of concept, while large animals are endorsed for truly translational research in order to get the regulatory approval for clinical use in humans. An up-to-date of the in vivo studies using different animal models and ongoing clinical trials for the repair and regeneration of OC lesions are presented. Commercialised products for OC repair are also indicated.


Articular Cartilage Subchondral Bone Hyaline Cartilage Autologous Chondrocytes Implantation Articular Cartilage Defect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The research leading to this work has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement No REGPOT-CT2012-316331-POLARIS, and from QREN (ON.2—NORTE-01-0124-FEDER-000016) cofinanced by North Portugal Regional Operational Program (ON.2—O Novo Norte), under the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF), through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). Thanks are also due to the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) and FSE/POCH (Fundo Social Europeu através do Programa Operacional do Capital Humano), PD/59/2013, for the project PEst-C/SAU/LA0026/201, for the fellowship grants of  Sandra Pina (SFRH/BPD/108763/2015) and Viviana Ribeiro (PD/BD/113806/2015), and for the distinction attributed to J.M. Oliveira under the Investigator FCT program (IF/00423/2012).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandra Pina
    • 1
    • 2
  • Viviana Ribeiro
    • 1
    • 2
  • Joaquim Miguel Oliveira
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rui Luís Reis
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.3B’s Research Group—Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative MedicineUniversity of MinhoBarco GMRPortugal
  2. 2.ICVS/3B’s—PT Government Associate LaboratoryBraga, GuimarãesPortugal

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