From Emotions to Place Attachment

  • Antónia Correia
  • Cristiana Oliveira
  • Rosária Pereira
Part of the Tourism on the Verge book series (TV)


Tourism is all about places and people. Tourism and places are a relation to be explained under the tenets of sociology and psychology. This void the present research, that aims to assess place attachment as an emotional state. As the discussion is positing only on domestic tourists, the cultural attachment is engrained. Hence the only dimension that remains to explain is the relation within people and places, i.e. emotions. This chapter based on a sample of 1358 domestic tourists with a relation with the south of Portugal of more than 25 years, explores the role of emotions in place attachment. Grounded on pleasure-arousal model of Russell (Plato on pleasure and the good life, Oxford University Press, 2005), 12 emotional states were regressed throughout an order probit model to explain the long lasting relation with the Algarve. The results suggest that relation with the Algarve will keep on if the place will be able to delight, fascinate and surprise tourists that feel also nostalgic when their holidays are over. These results put a great pressure in tourism authorities, retain tourists is overwhelming their expectations.


Emotional State Positive Emotion Behavioral Intention Order Probit Model Place Attachment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aho, S. K. (2001). Towards a general theory of touristic experiences: Modelling experience process in tourism. Tourism Review, 56(3/4), 33–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alistair, W. (2006). Tourism and hospitality marketing: Fantasy, feeling and fun. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 18(6), 482–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altman, I., & Low, S. M. (1992). Place attachment: A conceptual inquiry. In I. Altman & S. M. Low (Eds.), Place attachment. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bagozzi, R. P., Gopinath, M., & Nyer, P. U. (1999). The role of emotions in marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(2), 184–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baloglu, S., & Brinberg, D. (1997). Affective images of tourism destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 35(4), 11–15.Google Scholar
  6. Ben-Akiva, M., Mcfadden, D., Abe, M. et al. (1997). Modeling methods for discrete choice analysis. Marketing Letters, 8(3), 273–286.Google Scholar
  7. Bigné, J. E., Mattila, A. S., & Andreu, L. (2008). The impact of experiential consumption cognitions and emotions on behavioral intentions. Journal of Services Marketing, 22(4), 303–315.Google Scholar
  8. Bigné, J. E., Andrey, L., & Gnoth, J. (2005). The theme park experience: An analysis of pleasure, arousal and satisfaction. Tourism Management, 26(6), 833–844.Google Scholar
  9. Bloch, P. H., Sherrell, D. L., & Ridgway, N. M. (1986). Consumer search: An extended framework. Journal of Consumer Research, 13(1), 119–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Caldwell, N. (2002). (Rethinking) the measurement of service quality in museums and galleries. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 7(2), 161–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chamberlain, L., & Broderick, A. J. (2007). The application of physiological observation methods to emotion research. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 10(2), 199–216.Google Scholar
  12. Chebat, J. C., & Michon, R. (2003). Impact of ambient odors on mall shoppers’ emotions, cognition, and spending: A test of competitive causal theories. Journal of Business Research, 56(7), 529–539.Google Scholar
  13. Cohen, J. B., Pham, M. T., & Andrade, E. B. (2008). The nature and role of affect in consumer behavior. In Handbook of consumer psychology (pp. 297–348).Google Scholar
  14. Correia, A., & Kozak, M. (2012). Exploring prestige and status on domestic destinations: The case of algarve. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(4), 1951–1967.Google Scholar
  15. Correia, M., Kozak, M., & Tao, M. (2014). Dynamics of tourists’ decision making: From theory to practice. In S. Macabe (Ed.), Handbook of tourism marketing (pp. 299–312). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Cutler, S. E., Larsen, R. J., & Bunce, S. C. (1996). Repressive coping style and the experience and recall of emotion: A naturalistic study of daily affect. Journal of Personality, 64, 379–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Decrop, A. (1999). Tourists’ decision-making and behavior processes. In Consumer behavior in travel and tourism (pp. 103–133).Google Scholar
  18. De Ruyter, K., Wetzels, M., Lemmink, J., & Mattsson, J. (1997). The dynamics of the service delivery process: A value-based approach. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 14(3), 231–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dubé, L., & Morgan, M. S. (1998). Capturing the dynamics of in-process consumption emotions and satisfaction in extended service transactions. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 15, 309–320.Google Scholar
  20. Floyd, M. F. (1997). Pleasure, arousal, and dominance: Exploring affective determinants of recreation satisfaction. Leisure Sciences, 19(2), 83–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Goossens, C. (2000). Tourism information and pleasure motivation. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(2), 301–321.Google Scholar
  22. Grappia, S., & Montanarib, F. (2011). The role of social identification and hedonism in affecting tourist re-patronizing behaviours: The case of an Italian festival. Tourism Management, 32(5), 1128–1140.Google Scholar
  23. Gretzel, U., Fesenmaier, D. R., Formica, S., & O’Leary, J. T. (2006). Searching for the future: Challenges faced by destination marketing organizations. Journal of Travel Research, 45(2), 116–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gu, H., & Ryan, C. (2008). Place attachment, identity and community impacts of tourism the case of a Beijing Hutong. Tourism Management, 29(4), 637–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Harrison, P., & Shaw, R. (2004). Consumer satisfaction and post-purchase intentions: An exploratory study of museum visitors. International Journal of Arts Management, 6(2), 23–33.Google Scholar
  26. Hernández, B., Martin, A., Ruiz, C., & Hidalgo, M. (2010). The role of place identity and place attachment in breaking environmental protection laws. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(3), 281–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Holbrook, M. B. (2006). Consumption experience, customer value, and subjective personal introspection: An illustrative photographic essay. Journal of Business Research, 59(6), 714–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hosany, S. (2012). Appraisal determinants of tourist emotional responses. Journal of Travel Research, 51(3), 303–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hosany, S., & Gilbert, D. (2010). Measuring tourists’ emotional experiences toward hedonic holiday destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 49(4), 513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hosany, S., & Prayag, G. (2013). Patterns of tourists’ emotional responses, satisfaction, and intention to recommend. Journal of Business Research, 66(6), 730–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Huang, M. H. (2001). The theory of emotions in marketing. Journal of Business and Psychology, 16(2), 239–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Izard, C. E. (1977). Human emotions. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  33. Jang, S. S., & Namkung, Y. (2009). Perceived quality, emotions, and behavioral intentions: Application of an extended Mehrabian–Russell model to restaurants. Journal of Business Research, 62(4), 451–460.Google Scholar
  34. Kahneman, D. (1999). Objective happiness. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: Foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 3–25). New York: Russell Sage Foundation Press.Google Scholar
  35. Kleinginna, P. R., Jr., & Kleinginna, A. M. (1981). A categorized list of emotion definitions, with suggestions for a consensual definition. Motivation and Emotion, 5(4), 345–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kuppens, P., Stouten, J., & Mesquita, B. (2009). Individual differences in emotion components and dynamics: Introduction to the special issue. Cognition and Emotion, 23, 1249–1258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kwortnik, R. J., & Ross, W. T. (2007). The role of positive emotions in experiential decisions. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 24(4), 324–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kyle, G. T., & Lee, J. J. (2012). Recollection consistency of festival consumption emotions. Journal of Travel Research, 51(2), 178–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Larsen, R. J., & Diener, E. (1992). Promises and problems with the circumplex model of emotion (pp. 25–29). Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications Inc.Google Scholar
  40. Lee, Y. K., Lee, C. K., Lee, S. K., & Babin, B. J. (2008). Festivalscapes and patrons’ emotions, satisfaction, and loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 61(1), 56–64.Google Scholar
  41. Lee, J., & Kyle, G. T. (2012). Recollection consistency of festival consumption emotions. Journal of Travel Research, 51(2), 178–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ma, J., Gao, J., Scott, N., & Ding, P. (2013). Customer delight from theme park experiences: The antecedents of delight based on cognitive appraisal theory. Annals of Tourism Research, 42, 359–381.Google Scholar
  43. Machleita, K. A., & Eroglub. (2000). Describing and measuring emotional response to shopping experience. Journal of Business Research, 49(2), 101–111.Google Scholar
  44. Mauss, I. B., & Robison, M. D. (2009). Measures of emotion: A review. Cognition and Emotion, 23(2), 2019–2237.Google Scholar
  45. Mcintosh, A. J., & Siggs, A. (2005). An exploration of the experiential nature of boutique accommodation. Journal of Travel Research, 44(1), 74–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Morgan, M., Lugosi, P., & Ritchie, J. R. B. (2010). The tourism and leisure experience: Consumer and managerial perspectives. Bristol: Channel View.Google Scholar
  47. Morin, C. (2011). Neuromarketing: The new science of consumer behavior. Society, 48(2), 131–135.Google Scholar
  48. Niedenthal, P. M., & Brauer, M. (2012). Social functionality of human emotion. Annual Review of Psychology, 63(1), 259–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Oppermann, M. (2000). Tourism destination loyalty. Journal of travel research, 39(1), 78–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Otto, J. E., & Ritchie, J. R. B. (1996). The service experience in tourism. Tourism Management, 17(3), 165–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pearce, P., & Coghlan, A. (2010). Tracking affective components of satisfaction. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(1), 42–58. doi: 10.1057/thr.2009.18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Poels, K., & Dewitte, S. (2006). How to capture the heart? Reviewing 20 years of emotion measurement in advertising. Journal of Advertising Research, 46(1), 18–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Prohansky, H. M. (1978). The city and self-identity. Environment and Behavior, 10, 147–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Prohansky, H., Fabian, A., & Kaminoff, R. (1983). Place identity: Physical world socialization of self. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3(1), 57–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pruneau, D., Chouinard, O., Arsenault, C., & Breau, N. (1999). An intergenerational education project aiming at the improvement of people’s relationship with their environment. International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, 8(1), 26–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ravaja, N. (2004). Contributions of psychophysiology to media research: Review and recommendations. Media Psychology, 6(2), 193–235.Google Scholar
  57. Raymond, C. M., Brown, G., & Weber, D. (2010). The measurement of place attachment: Personal, community, and environmental connections. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(4), 422–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ritchie, J. R. B., & Hudson, S. (2009). Understanding and meeting the challenges of consumer/tourist experience research. International Journal of Tourism Research, 11, 111–126.Google Scholar
  59. Robert, J., & Donovan, R. J. (1994). Store atmosphere and purchasing behavior. Journal of Retail, 70(3), 283–294.Google Scholar
  60. Russell, J., & Mehrabian, A. (1974). An approach to environmental psychology. Cambridge, MA, US: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  61. Russell, J. (1980). A circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 1161–1178.Google Scholar
  62. Russell, D. C. (2005). Plato on pleasure and the good life. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Scannell, L., & Gifford, R. (2010). Defining place attachment: A tripartite organizing framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Stewart, D. W., & Furse, D. H. (1982). Applying psychophysiological measures to marketing and advertising research problems. Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 5(1), 1–38.Google Scholar
  65. Schreyer, R., Jacob, G., & White, R. (1981). Environmental meaning as a determinant of spatial behavior in recreation. In J. Frazier & B. Epstein (Eds.), Proceedings of the Applied Geography Conferences (pp. 294–300). Binghamton, NY: Department of Geography, SUNY Binghamton.Google Scholar
  66. Shamai, S. (1991). Sense of place: An empirical measurement. Geoforum, 22, 347–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stedman, R., & Jorgensen, B. S. (2006). A comparative analysis of predictors of sense of place dimensions: Attachment to, dependence on, and identification with lakeshore properties. Journal of Environmental Management, 79, 316–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Stokols, D., & Shumaker, S. A. (1981). People in places: A transactional view of settings. In J. Harvey (Ed.), Cognition, social behaviour, and the environment. New Jersey: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  69. Tung, V. W. S., & Ritchie, J. R. B. (2011). Exploring the essence of memorable tourism experiences. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4), 1367–1386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Um, S., & Crompton, J. L. (1990). Attitude determinants in tourism destination choice. Annals of Tourism Research, 17, 432–448.Google Scholar
  71. Vögele, C., & Florin, I. (1995). Psychophysiological responses to cue-exposure in binge eaters. In B. Tuschen & I. Florin (Eds.), Current research in eating disorders (pp. 62–73). Münster: Verlag für Psychotherapie.Google Scholar
  72. Walters, G., & Sparks, B. (2012). The impact of consumption vision and emotion on the tourism consumer’s decision behavior. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 36(3), 366–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wang, Y., & Pizam, A. (2011). Destination marketing and management: Theories and applications. CABI International.Google Scholar
  74. Wang, Y. J., & Minor, M. S. (2008). Validity, reliability, and applicability of psychophysiological techniques in marketing research. Psychology and Marketing, 25(2), 197–232.Google Scholar
  75. Williams, D. R., Patterson, M. E., Roggenbuck, J. W., & Watson, A. E. (1992). Beyond the commodity metaphor: Examining emotional and symbolic attachment to place. Leisure Sciences, 14, 29–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. White, C., & Scandale, S. (2005). The role of emotions in destination visitation intentions: A cross-cultural perspective. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 12(2), 168–178.Google Scholar
  77. Wiles, J. A., & Cornwell, T. B. (1991). A review of methods utilized in measuring affect, feelings, and emotion in advertising. Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 13(1–2), 241–275.Google Scholar
  78. Woratschek, H., & Horbel, C. (2006). Are variety-seekers bad customers? An analysis of the role of recommendations in the service profit chain. Journal of Relationship Marketing, 4(3–4), 43–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Woodside, A., & Lysonski, S. (1989). A general model of traveler destination choice. Journal of Travel Research, 27(4), 8–14.Google Scholar
  80. Yuksel, A. (2007). Tourist shopping habitat: Effects on emotions, shopping value and behaviours. Tourism Management, 28(1), 58–69.Google Scholar
  81. Yüksel, A., & Yüksel, F. (2007). Shopping risk perceptions: Effects on tourists’ emotions, satisfaction and expressed loyalty intentions. Tourism Management, 28(3), 703–713.Google Scholar
  82. Yuksel, A., Yuksel, F., & Bilim, Y. (2010). Destination attachment: Effects on customer satisfaction and cognitive, affective and conative loyalty. Tourism Management, 31(2), 274–284.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antónia Correia
    • 1
    • 2
  • Cristiana Oliveira
    • 3
  • Rosária Pereira
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.CEFAGE, University of AlgarveFaroPortugal
  2. 2.Universidade EuropeiaLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Universidad Europea de CanariasSanta Cruz de TenerifeSpain

Personalised recommendations