Cytomorphology of Fine Needle Aspiration of Thyroid

  • Zubair W. Baloch


Thyroid nodules are common, up to 60 % of the general population may have sonographically detectable thyroid nodule(s) though only up to 5 % of these harbor malignancy. The challenge facing general physicians, endocrinologists, surgeons, and pathologists is to achieve an accurate preoperative diagnosis of malignancy in order to ensure appropriate treatment of the patients with thyroid nodules. FNA is the most commonly used modality that helps to establish a preoperative diagnosis of malignancy. Based on cytologic interpretation and regardless of the terminology employed, about 25 % of the thyroid nodules are classified as “indeterminate,” i.e., not possible to specify if the nodule is benign, malignant or suspicious for malignancy with a high risk of cancer. This chapter provides an overview of many aspects of thyroid FNA including commonly employed preparatory techniques, diagnostic classification, and cytomorphology along with histopathology of various thyroid lesions.


Thyroid nodules FNA Cytology Bethesda Classification Morphology Diagnosis 


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of MedicineUniversity of Pennsylvania Medical CenterPhiladelphiaUSA

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