Simulation of an Optional Strategy in the Prisoner’s Dilemma in Spatial and Non-spatial Environments
This paper presents research comparing the effects of different environments on the outcome of an extended Prisoner’s Dilemma, in which agents have the option to abstain from playing the game. We consider three different pure strategies: cooperation, defection and abstinence. We adopt an evolutionary game theoretic approach and consider two different environments: the first which imposes no spatial constraints and the second in which agents are placed on a lattice grid. We analyse the performance of the three strategies as we vary the loner’s payoff in both structured and unstructured environments. Furthermore we also present the results of simulations which identify scenarios in which cooperative clusters of agents emerge and persist in both environments.
KeywordsArtificial life Game theory Evolutionary computation
Funded by CNPq–Brazil and the Hardiman Scholarship, NUI Galway.
- 10.Joyce, D., Kennison, J., Densmore, O., Guerin, S., Barr, S., Charles, E., Thompson, N.S.: My way or the highway: a more naturalistic model of altruism tested in an iterative Prisoners’ Dilemma. J. Artif. Soc. Soc. Simulat. 9(2), 4 (2006)Google Scholar
- 11.Li, M., O’Riordan, C.: The effect of clustering coefficient and node degree on the robustness of cooperation. In: 2013 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), pp. 2833–2839. IEEE (2013)Google Scholar