Advertisement

Phimosis and Paraphimosis

  • Mohamed Fahmy
Chapter

Abstract

The foreskin is usually still fused with the glans at birth. As childhood progresses, they gradually separate. There are different reports and a lot of debates about the age at which the foreskin can be retracted safely as there is no consensus about the time of complete separation between the glans and the inner prepuce. The other problem is the inability of many physicians to distinguish between physiological phimosis, pathological phimosis and paraphimosis, and their misdiagnosis that leads to unnecessary parents’ anxiety and over-referrals to urologists for circumcision or consultation. Of these cases referred to a urology clinic, in one study, it was detected that only 8–14.4 % had a “true” phimosis which necessitate surgical intervention.

Keywords

Physiological phimosis Pathological phimosis Preputial stenosis and paraphimosis 

References

  1. 1.
    TKumar P, Deb M, Das K. Preputial adhesions–a misunderstood entity.Indian. J Pediatr. 2009;76(8):829–32.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    McGregor TB, Pike JG, Leonard MP. Phimosis—a diagnostic dilemma? Can. J Urol. 2005;12(2):2598–602.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kikiros CS, Beasley SW, Woodward AA. The response of phimosis to local steroid application. Pediatr Surg Int. 1993;8(4):329–32. doi: 10.1007/BF00173357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    McGregor TB, Pike JG, Leonard MP. Pathologic and physiologic phimosis: approach to the phimotic foreskin. Can Fam Physician. 2007;53(3):445–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sneppen I, Thorup J. Foreskin morbidity in uncircumcised males. Pediatrics. 2016;137(5). doi:  10.1542/peds.2015-4340.
  6. 6.
    Shankar KR, Rickwood AM. The incidence of phimosis in boys. BJU Int. 1999;84(1):101–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bromage SJ, Crump A, Pearce I. Phimosis as a presenting feature of diabetes. BJU Int. 2008;101(3):338–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    He Y, Zhou XH. Balloon dilation treatment of phimosis in boys. Report of 512 cases. Chin Med J (Engl). 1991;104(6):491–3.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Golubovic Z, Milanovic D, Vukadinovic V, et al. The conservative treatment of phimosis in boys. BJU Int. 1996;78:786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kessler CS, Bauml J. Non-traumatic urologic emergencies in men: a clinical review. West J Emerg Med. 2009;10(4):281–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Little B, White M. Treatment options for paraphimosis. Int J Clin Pract. 2005;59(5):591–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Further Reading

  1. Foreskin Websites: Foreskin http://www.foreskin.org/.
  2. Robin S. The circumcision taboos. Phimosis frenulum and foreskin conditions, phimosis and male initiation http://www.phimosis.cloud/welcome.html.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed Fahmy
    • 1
  1. 1.Pediatric SurgeryAl Azher UniversityCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations