Phimosis and Paraphimosis

  • Mohamed Fahmy


The foreskin is usually still fused with the glans at birth. As childhood progresses, they gradually separate. There are different reports and a lot of debates about the age at which the foreskin can be retracted safely as there is no consensus about the time of complete separation between the glans and the inner prepuce. The other problem is the inability of many physicians to distinguish between physiological phimosis, pathological phimosis and paraphimosis, and their misdiagnosis that leads to unnecessary parents’ anxiety and over-referrals to urologists for circumcision or consultation. Of these cases referred to a urology clinic, in one study, it was detected that only 8–14.4 % had a “true” phimosis which necessitate surgical intervention.


Physiological phimosis Pathological phimosis Preputial stenosis and paraphimosis 


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Further Reading

  1. Foreskin Websites: Foreskin
  2. Robin S. The circumcision taboos. Phimosis frenulum and foreskin conditions, phimosis and male initiation

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed Fahmy
    • 1
  1. 1.Pediatric SurgeryAl Azher UniversityCairoEgypt

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