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Strongyloidiasis in Oceania

  • Wendy PageEmail author
  • Jennifer Shield
  • Francis O’Donahoo
  • Adrian Miller
  • Jenni Judd
  • Rick Speare
Chapter
Part of the Neglected Tropical Diseases book series (NTD)

Abstract

Strongyloidiasis is a potentially fatal disease caused by species of Strongyloides (Nematoda). In Oceania, two species infect humans: S. stercoralis and S. kellyi. S. stercoralis is widespread throughout Oceania and causes serious disease in any age group. S. kellyi is localised to Papua New Guinea and causes serious disease in infants. Infective larvae enter the body through the skin and migrate through the tissues. Adult females live in the mucosa of the proximal small intestine. The life cycle of S. stercoralis includes autoinfection, unusual in parasitic worms, whereby some of the offspring of the parasitic adults become infective in the lower intestine and complete the life cycle in the same person. This ensures that the infection persists, and the population of the worms can increase out of control, usually when the person is immunodeficient or immunosuppressed. The worms can be eliminated by oral ivermectin, and the person is probably cured if their serology is negative 6 months after treatment. This chapter contains details of the life cycles, transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests and how to interpret them, most effective treatment options, how to ensure that treatment has been effective and what to consider when developing effective prevention and control strategies.

Keywords

Strongyloidiasis Strongyloides Strongyloides stercoralis, Strongyloides kellyi Stongyloides fuelleborni Neglected tropical diseases, NTD Soil trandmitted helminths STH Oceania 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wendy Page
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jennifer Shield
    • 2
  • Francis O’Donahoo
    • 3
  • Adrian Miller
    • 4
  • Jenni Judd
    • 5
    • 6
    • 7
  • Rick Speare
    • 7
    • 8
    • 9
  1. 1.Miwatj Health Aboriginal Corporation, Nhulunbuy, Northern Territory and College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacy and Applied ScienceLa Trobe UniversityBendigoAustralia
  3. 3.School of the Environment, Flinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia
  4. 4.Indigenous Research UnitNathan Campus, Griffith UniversityNathan, BrisbaneAustralia
  5. 5.School of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  6. 6.Australian Institute of Health and Tropical MedicineJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  7. 7.Anton Breinl Centre for Health Systems StrengtheningJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  8. 8.Tropical Health SolutionsTownsvilleAustralia
  9. 9.College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia

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