Full Scale Accelerated Pavement Tests to Evaluate the Performance of Permeable and Skeletal Soil Block Pavement Systems

  • Abubeker Ahmed
  • Fredrik Hellman
  • Sigurdur Erlingsson
Conference paper


The increasing proportion of paved surface due to urbanization means that the conditions for urban trees and vegetation to survive have deteriorated. Factors such as air pollution, poor drainage, and the lack of usable soil for root growth contribute to the short life expectancy of urban trees. To meet this challenge, several permeable and “structural” or “skeletal soils” have been developed as alternatives to the typical compacted soil required to bear the weight of vehicular traffic in urban areas. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the resistance to permanent deformation of permeable and skeletal soil pavement structures based on full scale accelerated pavement tests (APT) using a heavy vehicle simulator (HVS). Interlocking paving stones of various types were used as permeable surface layer for the test structures. The results demonstrated that the permeable test structures exhibited higher permanent deformation than the corresponding impervious structures. The skeletal soil with bituminous base layer, however, produced performance comparable to the impervious reference test structures.


Heavy vehicle simulator Permeable pavement Skeletal soil Block pavement 



The authors are grateful for the financial support of VINNOVA, the Sweden’s Innovation Agency, and SBUF, the Construction Industry’s Organisation for Research and Development. We would also like to acknowledge the STARKA for providing the concrete pavers, EMMABODA GRANITE for providing the granite stone blocks and NCC Road AB for providing the unbound materials and performing the constructions. Other companies that have been involved in the project are Benders, Stenindustriförbundet, Stockholms Trafikkontor, Cementa, SP—Technical Research Institute of Sweden, and CBI—Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abubeker Ahmed
    • 1
  • Fredrik Hellman
    • 1
  • Sigurdur Erlingsson
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Pavement TechnologyNational Road and Transport Research Institute, VTILinköpingSweden
  2. 2.Faculty of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of IcelandReykjavikIceland

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