Advertisement

Changes of Electrical Brain Activity After Cognitive Training in Old Adults and Older Industrial Workers

  • Michael Falkenstein
  • Patrick D. Gajewski
Chapter

Abstract

Cognitive training (CT) has effects on performance as well as brain measures. In most CT studies measures of brain structure and perfusion have been used, while methods based on the electroencephalogram (EEG) have been almost neglected. The first part of the chapter provides an overview about CT studies in older adults using EEG-based methods. The results generally reveal enhancements of specific EEG frequency bands or ERP components after CT while timing was not affected. This suggests an enhancement but no acceleration of the underlying processes due to CT. The second part presents some results of a CT study with older industrial workers who showed specific cognitive deficits. CT led to an improvement of the affected functions which was seen in an increase of performance accuracy and enhancement of specific ERP components. In the final part the advantages of brain-related, and particular EEG-based, measures for CT research are outlined, and recommendations for their use in future CT studies with older adults and particularly older workers are given.

Keywords

Executive functions Cognitive control Cognitive training Occupation EEG ERP Aging Task switching 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We want to thank Christiane Westedt and Ludger Blanke for their invaluable organizational and technical support in the EEG-based studies. Moreover, we are grateful to Ute Lobisch for improving style and legibility of the draft and for her committed work with text and literature formatting.

References

  1. Andel, R., Crowe, M., Pedersen, N. L., Mortimer, J., Crimmins, E., Johansson, B., et al. (2005). Complexity of work and risk of Alzheimer’s disease: A population-based study of Swedish twins. Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60(5), 251–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anguera, J. A., Boccanfuso, J., Rintoul, J. L., Al-Hashimi, O., Faraji, F., Janowich, J., et al. (2013). Video game training enhances cognitive control in older adults. Nature, 501(7465), 97–101.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Ansiau, D., Wild, P., Niezborala, M., Rouch, I., & Marquie, J. C. (2008). Effects of working conditions and sleep of the previous day on cognitive performance. Applied Ergonomics, 39(1), 99–106.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ballesteros, S., Kraft, E., Santana, S., & Tziraki, C. (2015). Maintaining older brain functionality: A targeted review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 55, 453–477.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bamidis, P. D., Vivas, A. B., Styliadis, C., Frantzidis, C., Klados, M., Schlee, W., et al. (2014). A review of physical and cognitive interventions in aging. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 44, 206–220.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Brehmer, Y., Kalpouzos, G., Wenger, E., & Lovden, M. (2014). Plasticity of brain and cognition in older adults. Psychological Research, 78(6), 790–802.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cummins, T. D., & Finnigan, S. (2007). Theta power is reduced in healthy cognitive aging. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 66(1), 10–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Finkel, D., Andel, R., Gatz, M., & Pedersen, N. L. (2009). The role of occupational complexity in trajectories of cognitive aging before and after retirement. Psychology and Aging, 24(3), 563–573.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Gajewski, P. D., & Falkenstein, M. (2012). Training-induced improvement of response selection and error detection in aging assessed by task switching: Effects of cognitive, physical, and relaxation training. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 130.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Gajewski, P. D., Wild-Wall, N., Schapkin, S. A., Erdmann, U., Freude, G., & Falkenstein, M. (2010a). Effects of aging and job demands on cognitive flexibility assessed by task switching. Biological Psychology, 85(2), 187–199.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Gajewski, P. D., Wipking, C., Falkenstein, M., & Gehlert, T. (2010). Dortmunder Altersstudie: Studie zur Förderung der Hirnleistungsfähigkeit bei Älteren (Forschungsbericht VV04). Berlin: Die deutschen Versicherer (GDV).Google Scholar
  12. Gaál, Z., Czigler, I. (2016). Task-switching training and transfer: age-related effects on late ERP components. Journal of Psychophysiology (in press).Google Scholar
  13. Hahn, M., Wild-Wall, N., & Falkenstein, M. (2011). Age-related differences in performance and stimulus processing in dual task situation. Brain Research, 1414, 66–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hohnsbein, J., Falkenstein, M., & Hoormann, J. (1998). Performance differences in reaction tasks are reflected in event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Ergonomics, 41(5), 622–633.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Karbach, J., & Verhaeghen, P. (2014). Making working memory work: A meta-analysis of executive-control and working memory training in older adults. Psychological Science, 25(11), 2027–2037.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Kelly, M. E., Loughrey, D., Lawlor, B. A., Robertson, I. H., Walsh, C., & Brennan, S. (2014). The impact of cognitive training and mental stimulation on cognitive and everyday functioning of healthy older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ageing Research Reviews, 15, 28–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Lampit, A., Hallock, H., & Valenzuela, M. (2014). Computerized cognitive training in cognitively healthy older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of effect modifiers. PLoS Medicine, 11(11), e1001756.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Marquié, J. C., Duarte, L. R., Bessieres, P., Dalm, C., Gentil, C., & Ruidavets, J. B. (2010). Higher mental stimulation at work is associated with improved cognitive functioning in both young and older workers. Ergonomics, 53(11), 1287–1301.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Mishra, J., de Villers-Sidani, E., Merzenich, M., & Gazzaley, A. (2014). Adaptive training diminishes distractibility in aging across species. Neuron, 84(5), 1091–1103.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. O'Brien, J. L., Edwards, J. D., Maxfield, N. D., Peronto, C. L., Williams, V. A., & Lister, J. J. (2013). Cognitive training and selective attention in the aging brain: An electrophysiological study. Clinical Neurophysiology, 124(11), 2198–2208.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Onton, J., Delorme, A., & Makeig, S. (2005). Frontal midline EEG dynamics during working memory. NeuroImage, 27(2), 341–356.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Pascual-Marqui, R. D., Michel, C. M., & Lehmann, D. (1994). Low resolution electromagnetic tomography: a new method for localizing electrical activity in the brain. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 18(1), 49–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Rose, N. S., Rendell, P. G., Hering, A., Kliegel, M., Bidelman, G. M., & Craik, F. I. (2015). Cognitive and neural plasticity in older adults’ prospective memory following training with the Virtual Week computer game. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 592.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Wild-Wall, N., Falkenstein, M., & Gajewski, P. D. (2012). Neural correlates of changes in a visual search task due to cognitive training in seniors. Neural Plasticity, 2012, 529057. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/529057.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Wild-Wall, N., Gajewski, P. D., & Falkenstein, M. (2009). Kognitive Leistungsfähigkeit älterer Arbeitnehmer. Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie, 42, 299–304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Wild-Wall, N., Hohnsbein, J., & Falkenstein, M. (2007). Effects of ageing on cognitive task preparation as reflected by event-related potentials. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118(3), 558–569.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors at TU Dortmund (IfADo)DortmundGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Ageing Learning and Occupation (ALA)BochumGermany

Personalised recommendations