Gender and Academic Work at a Dutch University

  • Liudvika LeišytėEmail author
  • Bengü Hosch-Dayican
Part of the The Changing Academy – The Changing Academic Profession in International Comparative Perspective book series (CHAC, volume 17)


European higher education systems have undergone significant transformation in the past two decades due to the new governance arrangements. Studies have indicated that the teaching-research nexus is being reshaped by the changes in institutional environment, which include increasing student numbers, financial pressures, shifts in evaluation and rewarding criteria for faculty, as well as the expectations of external sponsors of research. This changed nexus implies that teaching and research time in academics’ work portfolios increasingly compete with each other, which alters the nature of academic work and career paths at European universities. This chapter analyzes the extent to which the changing teaching-research nexus may influence gender inequalities among academics by focusing on the Dutch higher education system, and in particular, on a case study of a university in the Netherlands. Based on analyses of national and institutional reports, pertinent literature and survey data from this university, we demonstrate that the preconditions for a change in the teaching-research nexus exist in the Netherlands. Further, we find that an imbalanced allocation of teaching and research tasks is highly likely to have constraining effects on the career prospects of female academics.


Female Faculty Career Progression Career Prospect Workload Balance Female Academic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Bain, O., & Cummings, W. (2000). Academe’s glass ceiling: Societal, professional/organizational, and institutional barriers to the career advancement of academic women. Comparative Education Review, 44(4), 493–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barrett, L., & Barrett, P. (2011). Women and academic workloads: Career slow lane or Cul-de-Sac? Higher Education, 61(2), 141–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barry, J., Berg, E., & Chandler, J. (2012). Movement and coalition in contention: Gender, management and academe in England and Sweden. Gender, Work and Organization, 19(1), 52–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benschop, Y., & Brouns, M. (2003). Crumbling ivory towers: Academic organizing and its gender effects. Gender, Work and Organization, 10(2), 194–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bentley, P. (2011). Gender differences and factors affecting publication productivity among Australian university academics. Journal of Sociology, 48(1), 85–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bentley, P., & Kyvik, S. (2012). Academic work from a comparative perspective: A survey of faculty working time across 13 countries. Higher Education, 63(4), 529–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berg, E., Barry, J., & Chandler, J. (2003). Nice work if you can get it? The changing character of academic labour in Sweden and England. Comportamento Organizacional e Gestao, 9(2), 19–37.Google Scholar
  8. Bird, S. R. (2011). Unsettling universities’ incongruous, gendered bureaucratic structures: A case-study approach. Gender, Work and Organization, 18(2), 202–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blackmore, J., & Sachs, J. (2007). Performing and reforming leaders. New York: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  10. Clark, B. (1983). The higher education system: Academic organization in cross-national perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  11. De Boer, H., & Huisman, J. (1999). The new public management in Dutch universities. In D. Braun & F. X. Merrien (Eds.), Towards a new model of governance for universities (pp. 100–118). London/Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Google Scholar
  12. De Boer, H., Enders, J., & Leisyte, L. (2007). On striking the right notes: Shifts in governance and the organizational transformation of universities. Public Administration, 85(1), 27–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Goede, M., Belder, R., & De Jonge, J. (2013). Academic careers in the Netherlands 2013. Facts & figures 7. The Hague: Rathenau Instituut. Scholar
  14. De Weert, E. (2009). The organized contradictions of teaching and research: Reshaping the academic profession. In J. Enders & E. De Weert (Eds.), The changing face of academic life. Analytical and comparative perspectives (pp. 134–154). London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. De Weert, E., & Boezerooy, P. (2007). Higher education in the Netherlands. Country report. Enschede: Center for Higher Education Policy Studies.Google Scholar
  16. European Commission. (2012). She figures 2012. Gender in research and innovation. Statistics and indicators. Brussels: European Commission Community Research.Google Scholar
  17. Eveline, J. (2005). Woman in the ivory tower. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 18(6), 641–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goastellec, G., & Pekari, N. (2013). Gender differences and inequalities in academia: Findings in Europe. In U. Teichler & E. A. Höhle (Eds.), The work situation of the academic profession in Europe: Findings of a survey in twelve countries (pp. 55–78). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Grummell, B., Devine, D., & Lynch, K. (2009). The care‐less manager: Gender, care and new managerialism in higher education. Gender and Education, 21(2), 191–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lamont, M. (2009). How professors think: Inside the curious world of academic judgment. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Le Feuvre, N. (2009). Exploring women’s academic careers in cross-national perspective. Equal Opportunities International, 28(1), 9–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Leisyte, L. (2007). University governance and academic research: Case studies of research units in Dutch and English universities. Ph.D. thesis, University of Twente, CHEPS, Enschede.Google Scholar
  23. Leisyte, L., & Dee, J. R. (2012). Understanding academic work in a changing institutional environment. Faculty autonomy, productivity, and identity in Europe and the United States. In J. C. Smart & M. B. Paulsen (Eds.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (pp. 123–206). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Leisyte, L., & Hosch-Dayican, B. (2014). Changing academic roles and shifting gender inequalities. A case analysis of the influence of the teaching-research nexus on the academic career prospects of female academics in The Netherlands. Journal of Workplace Rights, 17(3–4), 467–490. doi: 10.2190/WR.17.3-4.m.
  25. Leisyte, L., Enders, J., & de Boer, H. (2008). The freedom to set research agendas – Illusion and reality of the research units in the Dutch universities. Higher Education Policy, 21, 377–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leisyte, L., Enders, J., & de Boer, H. (2009). The balance between teaching and research in Dutch and English universities in the context of university governance reforms. Higher Education, 58(5), 619–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Osborn, M., Rees, T., Bosch, M., Hermann, C., Hilden, J., Mason, J., et al. (2000). Science policies in the European Union: Promoting excellence through mainstreaming gender equality. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  28. Parker, J. (2008). Comparing research and teaching in university promotion criteria. Higher Education Quarterly, 62(3), 237–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Probert, B. (2005). I just couldn’t fit it in’: Gender and unequal outcomes in academic careers. Gender, Work and Organization, 12(1), 50–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rees, T. (2002). The Helsinki group on women and science: National policies on women and science in Europe. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  31. Rosenberg, R. (1988). The limits of access: The history of coeducation in America. In J. M. Faragher & F. Howe (Eds.), Women and higher education in America (pp. 107–129). New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  32. Schimank, U., & Winnes, M. (2000). Beyond Humboldt? The relationship between teaching and research in European university systems. Science and Public Policy, 27(6), 397–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Thomas, R., & Davies, A. (2002). Gender and new public management: Reconstituting academic subjectivities. Gender, Work and Organization, 9(4), 372–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Timmers, T. M., Willemsen, T. M., & Tijdens, K. G. (2010). Gender diversity policies in universities: A multi-perspective framework of policy measures. Higher Education, 59(6), 719–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Valian, V. (1998). Why so slow: The advancement of women. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  36. Van den Brink, M. (2010). Behind the scenes of science: Gender practices in recruitment and selection of professors in The Netherlands. Amsterdam: Pallas.Google Scholar
  37. Van den Brink, M., & Benschop, Y. (2012). Slaying the seven-headed dragon: The quest for gender change in academia. Gender, Work and Organization, 19(1), 71–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Higher Education (zhb)TU Dortmund UniversityDortmundGermany

Personalised recommendations