Application of Digital Image Correlation to the Thick Adherend Shear Test

  • Jared Van Blitterswyk
  • David BackmanEmail author
  • Jeremy Laliberté
  • Richard Cole
Conference paper
Part of the Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series book series (CPSEMS)


The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a novel method for measuring shear deformation during the Thick Adherend Shear Test (TAST), to determine in situ mechanical properties of an adhesive under tensile shear loading, using two-dimensional (2D) Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Shear strains were optically measured using DIC from the bond line and also from adherend deformations; both were compared against measurements made using the ASTM D5656 standard (KGR-1 extensometers). The results from 17 TAST specimens showed that all techniques were in good agreement, however, both DIC techniques had significantly lower variance on measured mechanical properties compared to the KGR-1 extensometers. The use of correlated adherend deformations was the preferred technique for deriving plastic shear strains, and overall produced the lowest scatter on mechanical properties. This study demonstrates the potential for the use of 2D DIC as a more precise, and time-efficient alternative to the KGR-1 extensometers for room temperature in situ characterization of adhesives in shear.


Adhesives Mechanical properties Single-lap joint Digital image correlation (DIC) KGR-1 extensometer Experimental test methods 



The technical support of Richard Desnoyers and Matthieu Harrison of NRC-Aerospace and Dr. Steven Philips of McGill University are gratefully acknowledged.


  1. 1.
    ASTM D5656-10: Standard Test Method for Thick-Adherend Metal Lap-Shear Joints for Determination of the Stress-Strain Behaviour of Adhesives in Shear by Tension Loading. ASTM International, West Conshohocken (2010). doi: 10.1520/D5656-10.
  2. 2.
    ASTM D1002-10: Standard Test Method for Apparent Shear Strength of Single-Lap-Joint Adhesively Bonded Metal Specimens by Tension Loading (Metal-to-Metal). ASTM International, West Conshohocken (2010). doi: 10.1520/D1002-10.
  3. 3.
    ASTM D3165-07: Standard Test Method for Strength Properties of Adhesives in Shear by Tension Loading of Single-Lap-Joint Laminated Assemblies. ASTM International, West Conshohocken (2007). doi: 10.1520/D3165-07.
  4. 4.
    Tomblin, J.S., Yang, C., Harter, P.: Investigation of thick bondline adhesive joints. U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration, Report: DOT/FAA/AR-01/33 (2001)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vijaya Kumar, R.L., Bhat, M.R., Murthy, C.R.L.: Experimental analysis of composite single-lap joints using digital image correlation and comparison with theoretical models. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 32(23), 1858–1876 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kassapogluo, C., Adelmann, J.: KGR-1 thick adherend specimen evaluation for the determination of adhesive mechanical properties. In: 23rd International SAMPE Technical Conference, Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering, pp. 162–176 (1991)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yang, C., Huang, H., Tomblin, J.S., Oplinger, D.W.: Evaluation and adjustments for ASTM D5656 standard test method for thick-adherend metal lap-shear joints for determination of the stress-strain behaviour of adhesives in shear by tension loading. J. Test. Eval. 29(1), 36–43 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tsai, M.Y., Morton, J., Krieger, R.B., Oplinger, D.W.: Experimental investigation of the thick-adherend lap shear test. J. Adv. Mater. 27(3), 28–36 (1996)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tomblin, J.S., Seneviratne, W., Escobar, P., Yoon-Khian, Y.: Shear stress-strain data for structural adhesives. U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration, Report: DOT/FAA/AR-02/97 (2002)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    da Silva, L.F.M., da Silva, R.A.M., Chousal, J.A.G., Pinto, A.M.G.: Alternative methods to measure the adhesive shear displacement in the thick adherend shear test. J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 22(1), 15–29 (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    da Silva, L.F.M., Adams, R.D.: Measurement of the mechanical properties of structural adhesives in tension and shear over a wide range of temperatures. J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 19(2), 109–141 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tsai, M.Y., Morton, J., Oplinger, D.W.: In situ determination of adhesive shear moduli using strain gages. Exp. Mech. 36(4), 297–304 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lemmen, H.J.K., Alderliesten, R.C., Benedictus, R., Hofstede, J.C.J., Rodi, R.: The power of Digital Image Correlation for detailed elastic-plastic strain measurements. In: WSEAS International Conference on Engineering Mechanics, Structures, Engineering Geology, Creta, 22–24 July 2008Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nunes, L.C.S.: Shear modulus estimation of the polymer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using digital image correlation. Mater. Des. 31(1), 583–588 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Comer, A.J., Katnam, K.B., Stanley, W.F., Young, T.M.: Characterising the behaviour of composite single lap bonded joints using digital image correlation. Int. J. Adhes. Adhes. 40, 215–223 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moutrille, M.P., Derrien, K., Baptiste, D., Balandraud, X., Grediac, M.: Through-thickness strain field measurement in a composite/aluminum adhesive joint. Compos. Part A 40(8), 985–996 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Adams, R.D., Wake, W.C.: Structural Adhesive Joints in Engineering. Elsevier Applied Science, New York (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Colavito, K.W., Gorman, J., Madenci, E.: Refinements in digital image correlation technique to extract adhesive strains in lap joints. In: Proceedings of the 50th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Palm Springs, 4–7 May 2009Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cognard, J.Y., Davies, P., Sohier, L.: Design and evaluation of bonded composite assemblies. In: European Congress of Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering (ECCOMAS), Jyväskylä, 24–28 July 2004Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wang, Z.Y., Wang, L., Guo, W., Deng, H., Tong, J.W., Aymerich, F.: An investigation on strain/stress distribution around the overlap end of laminated composite single-lap joints. Compos. Struct. 89(4), 589–595 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cytec Engineered Materials, Extensometer Operating Manual (2000)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sutton, M., Orteu, J., Schreier, H.: Image Correlation for Shape, Motion and Deformation Measurements. Springer, New York (2009)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Baker, A., Dutton, S., Kelly, D.: Composite Materials for Aircraft Structures, 2nd Edition. AIAA Education Series (2004). ISBN 978-1-56347-540-5Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Seneviratne, W.P., Tomblin, J.S.: Adhesive characterization using NIAR-modified KGR extensometer. Soc. Adv. Mater. Process Eng. 47(5), 37–44 (2011)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Patterson, E.A., Hack, E., Brailly, P., Burguete, R., Saleem, Q., Siebert, T., Tomlinson, R., Whelan, M.: Calibration and evaluation of optical systems for full-field strain measurement. Opt. Laser Eng. 45, 550–564 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jared Van Blitterswyk
    • 1
  • David Backman
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jeremy Laliberté
    • 1
  • Richard Cole
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringCarleton UniversityOttawaCanada
  2. 2.National Research Council Canada, Aerospace PortfolioOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations