Mid-Air Ultrasonic Pressure Control on Skin by Adaptive Focusing

  • Seki InoueEmail author
  • Yasutoshi Makino
  • Hiroyuki Shinoda
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9774)


Mid-air ultrasound can remotely invoke tactile sensation to bare hand. However, it is difficult to control it precisely because the hand itself scatters ultrasound. In this paper, a scattering model, which can be solved in real-time, is proposed and, this model can create a stronger focal point as compared to the conventional model. The proposed algorithm is based on the boundary element method and is a natural extension of the previously proposed phased array synthesis algorithms. Numerical analysis shows the relationship between the error of the surface model, computation time, and focusing performance. Psychophysical experiment shows that the internal tactile intensity of the focused ultrasound is significantly improved using the proposed adaptive focusing method. The proposed method can be used for mid-air ultrasound as a test bench of precise weak force haptic interaction.


Mid-air haptics Tactile Scattering problem Boundary element method 



This work was supported in part by JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) 25240032, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (A) 15H05315 and JSPS Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows 15J09604. We thank BEM++ Team for their open source projects from which we got a lot of insights for our implementation [12].


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seki Inoue
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yasutoshi Makino
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hiroyuki Shinoda
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Graduate School of Information Science and TechnologyThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Frontier SciencesThe University of TokyoChibaJapan

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