In this introductory chapter, we recall some facts about low-dimensional structures of isotope-based compounds which is the main subject of isotopic materials science. Modern physics distinguishes three fundamental properties of nuclei: mass, spin (and related magnetic moment), and volume (surrounding field strength), which are the essence of the isotope effect. It is underlined that stable and radioactive isotopes have a wide application in biology, medicine, optoelectronics as well as quantum processors.
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