• Ana Ludy Lopes MendesEmail author
  • Ilaria Jansen
  • Giovanni Mosiello
Part of the Urodynamics, Neurourology and Pelvic Floor Dysfunctions book series (UNPFD)


The recording of voiding symptoms at home under normal circumstances is crucial for the assessment of the lower urinary tract function in childhood. In the paediatric population, bladder diaries (BD) or frequency volume charts are routinely used in clinical practice and provide a non-invasive method to evaluate children with lower urinary tract symptoms. The ideal minimal time to complete the bladder diary is controversial, and in literature there is a lack of studies regarding bladder diaries for children.

There is an important relationship between bladder and bowel dysfunction, and for this reason bowel diaries are recommended as helpful to evaluate children with voiding problems and to monitor the treatment. The most common conditions for which diaries are useful in children are bladder bowel dysfunction and enuresis.

A bladder diary has some limitations, such as the fact that post-voiding residual (PVR) cannot be measured while being an important parameter to calculate the bladder capacity. Still, BDs are important in the understanding of voiding disturbances.


Urinary incontinence Paediatric Diaries 


  1. 1.
    Yeung CK. The normal infant bladder. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1995;173:19–23. PubMed PMID: 8719561.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Neveus T, von Gontard A, Hoebeke P, Hjalmas K, Bauer S, Bower W, et al. The standardization of terminology of lower urinary tract function in children and adolescents: report from the standardisation Committee of the International Children’s continence society. J Urol. 2006;176(1):314–24. PubMed PMID: 16753432.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hoebeke P, Bower W, Combs A, De Jong T, Yang S. Diagnostic evaluation of children with daytime incontinence. J Urol. 2010;183(2):699–703. PubMed PMID: 20022025.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abrams P, Cardozo L, Fall M, Griffiths D, Rosier P, Ulmsten U, et al. The standardisation of terminology of lower urinary tract function: report from the standardisation sub-committee of the international continence society. Neurourol Urodyn. 2002;21(2):167–78. PubMed PMID: 11857671.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bower WF, Moore KH, Adams RD, Shepherd RB. Frequency-volume chart data from incontinent children. Br J Urol. 1997;80(4):658–62. PubMed PMID: 9352709.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mahler B, Hagstroem S, Rittig N, Mikkelsen MM, Rittig S, Djurhuus JC. The impact of daytime diuresis on voiding frequency and incontinence classification in children. J Urol. 2008;179(6):2384–8. PubMed PMID: 18433779.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Austin PF, Bauer SB, Bower W, Chase J, Franco I, Hoebeke P, et al. The standardization of terminology of lower urinary tract function in children and adolescents: update report from the standardization committee of the international Children’s continence society. Neurourol Urodyn. 2016;35(4):471–81. PubMed PMID: 25772695.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yap TL, Cromwell DC, Emberton M. A systematic review of the reliability of frequency-volume charts in urological research and its implications for the optimum chart duration. BJU Int. 2007;99(1):9–16. PubMed PMID: 16956355.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Homma Y, Ando T, Yoshida M, Kageyama S, Takei M, Kimoto K, et al. Voiding and incontinence frequencies: variability of diary data and required diary length. Neurourol Urodyn. 2002;21(3):204–9. PubMed PMID: 11948713.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cornu JN, Abrams P, Chapple CR, Dmochowski RR, Lemack GE, Michel MC, et al. A contemporary assessment of nocturia: definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management--a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Urol. 2012;62(5):877–90. PubMed PMID: 22840350.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Weiss JP, Bosch JL, Drake M, Dmochowski RR, Hashim H, Hijaz A, et al. Nocturia think tank: focus on nocturnal polyuria: ICI-RS 2011. Neurourol Urodyn. 2012;31(3):330–9. PubMed PMID: 22415907.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gratzke C, Bachmann A, Descazeaud A, Drake MJ, Madersbacher S, Mamoulakis C, et al. EAU guidelines on the assessment of non-neurogenic male lower urinary tract symptoms including benign prostatic obstruction. Eur Urol. 2015;67(6):1099–109. PubMed PMID: 25613154.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bright E, Drake MJ, Abrams P. Urinary diaries: evidence for the development and validation of diary content, format, and duration. Neurourol Urodyn. 2011;30(3):348–52. PubMed PMID: 21284023.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schick E, Jolivet-Tremblay M, Dupont C, Bertrand PE, Tessier J. Frequency-volume chart: the minimum number of days required to obtain reliable results. Neurourol Urodyn. 2003;22(2):92–6. PubMed PMID: 12579624.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lopes I, Veiga ML, Braga AA, Brasil CA, Hoffmann A, Barroso U Jr. A two-day bladder diary for children: is it enough? J Pediatr Urol. 2015;11(6):348 e1–4. PubMed PMID: 26386888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vande Walle J, Rittig S, Bauer S, Eggert P, Marschall-Kehrel D, Tekgul S, et al. Practical consensus guidelines for the management of enuresis. Eur J Pediatr. 2012;171(6):971–83. PubMed PMID: 22362256. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3357467.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hansen MN, Rittig S, Siggaard C, Kamperis K, Hvistendahl G, Schaumburg HL, et al. Intra-individual variability in nighttime urine production and functional bladder capacity estimated by home recordings in patients with nocturnal enuresis. J Urol. 2001;166(6):2452–5. PubMed PMID: 11696810.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dohil R, Roberts E, Jones KV, Jenkins HR. Constipation and reversible urinary tract abnormalities. Arch Dis Child. 1994;70(1):56–7. PubMed PMID: 8110010. Pubmed Central PMCID: 1029685.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Loening-Baucke V. Urinary incontinence and urinary tract infection and their resolution with treatment of chronic constipation of childhood. Pediatrics. 1997;100(2 Pt 1):228–32. PubMed PMID: 9240804.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Heaton KW, Radvan J, Cripps H, Mountford RA, Braddon FE, Hughes AO. Defecation frequency and timing, and stool form in the general population: a prospective study. Gut. 1992;33(6):818–24. PubMed PMID: 1624166. Pubmed Central PMCID: 1379343.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hoebeke P, Van Laecke E, Van Camp C, Raes A, Van De Walle J. One thousand video-urodynamic studies in children with non-neurogenic bladder sphincter dysfunction. BJU Int. 2001;87(6):575–80. PubMed PMID: 11298061.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hjalmas K, Arnold T, Bower W, Caione P, Chiozza LM, von Gontard A, et al. Nocturnal enuresis: an international evidence based management strategy. J Urol. 2004;171(6 Pt 2):2545–61. PubMed PMID: 15118418.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vande Walle J, Vande Walle C, Van Sintjan P, De Guchtenaere A, Raes A, Donckerwolcke R, et al. Nocturnal polyuria is related to 24-hour diuresis and osmotic excretion in an enuresis population referred to a tertiary center. J Urol. 2007;178(6):2630–4. PubMed PMID: 17945292.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hjalmas K. Pathophysiology and impact of nocturnal enuresis. Acta Paediatr. 1997;86(9):919–22. PubMed PMID: 9343267.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Ludy Lopes Mendes
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ilaria Jansen
    • 2
    • 3
  • Giovanni Mosiello
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Urology, Surgery for Continence and Neuro-UrologyBambino Gesù Pediatric HospitalRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of UrologyAMCAmsterdamNetherlands
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical Engineering and PhysicsAMCAmsterdamNetherlands
  4. 4.Pediatric NeuroUrology Research and ClinicBambino Gesù Pediatric HospitalRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations