A Practical Experience on the Use of Gamification in MOOC Courses as a Strategy to Increase Motivation

  • Miguel Morales
  • Hector R. Amado-Salvatierra
  • Rocael Hernández
  • Johanna Pirker
  • Christian Gütl
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 620)

Abstract

The rapid and constant pace of change in technology and the increasing involvement of educational institutions in the massive online open courses (MOOC) movement elicit a large myriad of opportunities and challenges. One of the main issues is the reported high dropout rate. In this sense, gamification strategies have been proposed as a complement to existing learning approaches providing a powerful and motivational learning experience to students. Examples of gamification strategies for MOOC environments include rewards for learning activities, applying levels and leader-boards to encourage progress and competition, and badges for participation in forums. The aim of this study is to contribute to the analysis of motivational factors to provide improved learning experiences for cloud-based learning services. This paper presents lessons learned from the MOOC course “Authoring tools for e-learning courses”. 1678 participants experienced a mix of gamification strategies: Badges – Leaderboard forums; Students Classifier League and Reward strategy. Findings revealed the reward strategy as the most effective one, and indicated increased motivation to complete the assigned learning activities.

Keywords

Gamification Learning strategies MOOCs Motivation Learning engagement 

References

  1. 1.
    Yuan, L., Powell, S.: MOOCs and open education: implications for higher education. In: JISC CETIS. Centre for Educational Technology, Interoperability and Standards (2013). http://publications.cetis.org.uk/2013/667
  2. 2.
    Hernández, R., Gütl, C., Chang, V.: Must we be concerned with the Massive Drop-outs in MOOC? - an attrition analysis of open courses. In: International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning, ICL (2014)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hernández, R., Gütl, C., Amado-Salvatierra, H.R.: Cloud learning activities orchestration for MOOC environments. In: Uden, L., Sinclair, J., Tao, Y.-H., Liberona, D. (eds.) LTEC 2014. CCIS, vol. 446, pp. 25–36. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Class-Central Report: MOOCs stats and trends (2014). https://www.classcentral.com/report/moocs-stats-and-trends-2014/
  5. 5.
    Open Education Europa: Open Education Scoreboard (2015). http://www.openeducationeuropa.eu/es/open_education_scoreboard
  6. 6.
    Morales, M., Hernández Rizzardini, R., Guetl, C.: Telescope, a MOOCs initiative in latin america: infrastructure, best practices, completion and dropout analysis. In: IEEE FIE 2014 Conference Proceedings, Madrid, October 2014 (2014)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gütl, C., Rizzardini, R.H., Chang, V., Morales, M.: Attrition in MOOC: lessons learned from drop-out students. In: Uden, L., Sinclair, J., Tao, Y.-H., Liberona, D. (eds.) LTEC 2014. CCIS, vol. 446, pp. 37–48. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jordan, K.: MOOC Completion Rates: The Data (2013). http://www.katyjordan.com/MOOCproject.html
  9. 9.
    Pirker, J., Riffnaller, M., Guetl, C.: Motivational active learning – engaging university students in computer science education. In: Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education, ITiCSE 2014, 23–25 June, Uppsala, Sweden 2014, pp. 297–302 (2014)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hernández Rizzardini, R., Gütl, C., Chang, V., Morales, M.: MOOC in latin america: implementation and lessons learned. In: Uden, L., Tao, Y.H., Yang, H.C., Ting, I.H. (eds.) The 2nd International Workshop on Learning Technology for Education in Cloud. Springer Proceedings in Complexity, pp. 147–158. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    MOOC-Maker initiative: constructing management capacities to build MOOCs in Latin America (2016). http://www.moocmaker.org
  12. 12.
    Deterding, S., Khaled, R.: Gamification: toward a definition. In: CHI 2011 Gamification Workshop. ACM (2011)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Deterding, S., Sicart, M., Nacke, L., O’Hara, K., Dixon, D.: Gamification: using game-design elements in nongaming contexts. In: CHI 2011 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI EA 2011, pp. 2425–2428. ACM, New York, USA (2011)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Werback, K., Hunter, D.: For the Win: How Game Thinking Can Revolutionize Your Business, 1st edn. Wharton Digital Press, Philadelphia (2012)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Open Source Questions and Answers System. http://www.osqa.net
  16. 16.
    eXe Learning content authoring Tool. http://exelearning.org/
  17. 17.
    LimeSurvey FOSS survey tool. http://www.limesurvey.org
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
    Bartle, R.: Hearts, clubs, diamonds, spades: players who suit MUDs. J. MUD Res. 1(1), 19 (1996)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pirker, J., Riffnaller-Schiefer, M., Tomes, L.M., Gütl, C.: Motivational active learning in blended and virtual learning scenarios: engaging students in digital learning. In: Handbook of Research on Engaging Digital Natives in Higher Education Settings, p. 416 (2016)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chou, Y.: Top 10 Education Gamification Examples that will Change our Future (2013). http://www.yukaichou.com/gamification-examples/top-10-education-gamification-examples
  22. 22.
    Khan Academy Website (2013). https://www.khanacademy.org
  23. 23.
    Anderson, A., Huttenlocher, D., Kleinberg, J., Leskovec, J.: Engaging with massive online courses. In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on World Wide Web, pp. 687–698. ACM (2014)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hamari, J., Koivisto, J., Sarsa, H.: Does gamification work?--a literature review of empirical studies on gamification. In: 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS 2014, pp. 3025–3034. IEEE (2014)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Duolingo Website (2010). http://www.duolingo.com/info

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miguel Morales
    • 1
  • Hector R. Amado-Salvatierra
    • 1
  • Rocael Hernández
    • 1
    • 2
  • Johanna Pirker
    • 2
  • Christian Gütl
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.GES DepartmentGalileo UniversityGuatemalaGuatemala
  2. 2.IICMGraz University of TechnologyGrazAustria
  3. 3.SISCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations