Effects of Arctic Conditions on Human Performance

  • Anecito Reyes BalindresEmail author
  • Rupesh Kumar
  • Tore Markeset
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 489)


Modern technologies are used to create competitive performance in industry, and highly specialized personnel are often needed to operate and maintain the technology. However, both the technology and the personnel are influenced by the environment in which the technologies are operated. In this paper we study how human performance is influenced by an Arctic environment in conjunction with a remote location. Based on a literature study, we map Arctic factors and study how they affect human performance in remote locations. The results show that operational and maintenance personnel may be significantly affected by the Arctic conditions. If not taken into consideration during the design phase, human and organizational performance may be significantly affected. Examples are discussed in relation to petroleum production in Arctic locations north of Norway.


Human performance Human factors Arctic conditions 



This paper is based on the master thesis of Mr. Anecito R. Balindres Jr. [22], conducted under the guidance of Professors Tore Markeset and Rupesh Kumar in 2014.


  1. 1.
    Markeset, T., Sæland, A.C., Gudmestad, O.T., Barabady, J.: Petroleum production facilities in Arctic operational environments. In: International Arctic Petroleum Cooperation: Barents Sea Scenarios, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-13-878326-3, pp 184–203 (2015)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Larsen, A.C., Markeset, T.: Mapping of operations, maintenance and support design factors in Arctic environment, In: Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference, June 25–27, Stavanger, Norway (2007)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Virokannas, H.: Thermal responses to light, moderate and heavy outdoor work in cold weather. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 72(5–6), 483–489 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kullerud, L., Ræstad, N.: Oil and gas resources in Barents Sea. (2014). (Accessed May 28, 2014)
  5. 5.
    Proctor, R.W., van Zandt, T.V.: Human factors in simple and complex systems, 2nd ed., Boca Raton: CRC Press, ISBN 9780805841190 (2008)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blanchard, B.S., Verma, D., Petteron, E.L.: Maintainability: A Key to Effective Serviceability and Maintenance Management. Wiley, USA (1995)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Holmer, I.: Cold stress: part I—guidelines for practitioner. Int. J. Ind. Ergon. 1–2, 139–149 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ellis, H.D., Wilcock, S.E., Zaman, S.A.: Cold and performance: the effects of information load, analgesics, and the rate of cooling. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 56, 233–237 (1985)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Davies, B.: Blogs & Opinions, Human factors—The issues of working in arctic conditions. (2012) (Accessed May 29, 2014)10 Organization (1992)
  10. 10.
    Kanawaty, G. (ed.): Introduction to Work Study, 4th edn. International Labour Organization, Geneva (1992)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Geng, Q.: Hand cooling, protection and performance in cold environments, Ph.D. thesis, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden (2001)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Havenith, G., Heus, R., Daanen, H.A.M.: The hand in cold, performance and risk. Arctic Med. Res. 54(2), 37–47 (1995)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gudmestad, O.T., Løset, S., Alhimenko, A.I., Shkhinek, K.N., Tørum, A., Jensen, A.: Engineering Aspects Related to Arctic Offshore Development. LAN, St. Petersburg (2007)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Krüger, J.: Operations and Maintenance of Oil and Gas Platforms Under Arctic Conditions, Master thesis, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway (2013)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kumar, R., Barabady, J., Markeset, T.: Improvement of performance of oil and gas production facility in Arctic region by applying human factor/ergonomic principles at the design phase. In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, June 9–12, Luleå, Sweden (2009)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Makinen, T.M.: Human cold exposure, adaption and performance in a Northern climate. Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Centre for Arctic Medicine, Thule Institute, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland (2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bourne, L.E., Yaroush, R.A.: Stress and Cognition: A Cognitive Physiological Perspective. University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (2003)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Williams, J.T.: Textile for Cold Weather Apparels. Elsevier/Woodhead, ISBN 9781845694111 (2009)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Freitag, D.R., McFadden, T.: Introduction to Cold Region Engineering. ASCE Press (1997)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kumar, R., Barabady, J., Markeset, T.: Improving maintainability in extreme cold climatic conditions. Int. J. Performability Eng. 8(5), 563–572 (2012)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Imrhan, S.N.: Equipment design for maintenance: part I—guidelines for practitioner. Int. J. Ind. Ergon. 10, 35–43 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Balindres, A.R. Jr.: Effects of the Arctic conditions to human and organizational performance—A review, Master thesis, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway (2014)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anecito Reyes Balindres
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rupesh Kumar
    • 2
  • Tore Markeset
    • 1
  1. 1.University of StavangerStavangerNorway
  2. 2.Luleå University of TechnologyLuleåSweden

Personalised recommendations