Towards a Phantom for Multimodality Performance Evaluation of Breast Imaging: A 3D Structured Phantom with Simulated Lesions Tested for 2D Digital Mammography

  • Kristina Tri Wigati
  • Lesley Cockmartin
  • Nicholas Marshall
  • Djarwani S. Soejoko
  • Hilde BosmansEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9699)


The aim of this work is to test whether a 3D structured phantom with simulated lesions can be used for performance evaluation of 2D digital mammography, as a step towards a multimodality phantom. A phantom, developed for breast tomosynthesis was therefore applied on 23 digital mammography systems. Ten images were acquired at the clinically used dose and for 11 systems also at half and double dose. The images were read in a four-alternative forced choice (4-AFC) paradigm by 5 readers. CDMAM phantom acquisitions were also performed. It was possible to calculate diameter thresholds of the simulated masses and microcalcifications that guarantee 62.5 % correct response. The results showed the expected sensitivity with mean glandular dose: detectability of microcalcifications improved with dose, whereas the detectability of masses was not affected. Systems of the same manufacturer and operated at similar doses had very similar detectability scores. Percentage correctly detected microcalcifications with average diameter 119 µm correlated with CDMAM based gold thickness thresholds. Present phantom, developed and tested for tomosynthesis, is also a good candidate for 2D mammography, suggesting its use for (future) benchmarking of at least two types of imaging systems.


3D structured phantom Spiculated masses Non-spiculated masses Microcalcifications Image quality 



We would like to acknowledge the 4-AFC readers: Andreas Stratis, Frédéric Bemelmans, Michiel Dehairs, and Xochitl Lopez Rendon.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristina Tri Wigati
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lesley Cockmartin
    • 3
  • Nicholas Marshall
    • 1
    • 3
  • Djarwani S. Soejoko
    • 2
  • Hilde Bosmans
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Imaging and Pathology, Medical Imaging Research CenterKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural SciencesUniversity of IndonesiaDepokIndonesia
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyUniversity Hospitals LeuvenLeuvenBelgium

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