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Adhesion GPCRs as Modulators of Immune Cell Function

  • Jörg HamannEmail author
  • Cheng-Chih Hsiao
  • Chang Sup Lee
  • Kodi S. Ravichandran
  • Hsi-Hsien LinEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 234)

Graphical Abstract

Abstract

Immune cells express several adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs), including the ADGRE subfamily members EMR1 (F4/80, ADGRE1), EMR2 (ADGRE2), EMR3 (ADGRE3), EMR4 (FIRE, ADGRE4), and CD97 (ADGRE5), the ADGRB subfamily member BAI1 (ADGRB1), and the ADGRG subfamily members GPR56 (ADGRG1), GPR97 (Pb99, ADGRG3), and GPR114 (ADGRG5). Expression of these molecules in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, monocytes/macrophages (Mφs), dendritic cells, granulocytes, and lymphocytes depends on lineage diversification and maturation, making them suitable markers for individual leukocyte subsets (e.g., F4/80 on mouse Mφs). Recent studies revealed intriguing activities of aGPCRs in tolerance induction (EMR1), granulopoiesis (CD97), engulfment of apoptotic cells and bacteria (BAI1), hematopoietic stem cell formation (GPR56), and control of cytotoxicity (GPR56). Here, we review these findings and discuss their biological and translational implications.

Keywords

Adhesion GPCRs Immunity Macrophages Granulocytes T cells Phagocytosis 

Abbreviations

7TM

Seven transmembrane

Ab

Antibody

ABCA

ATP-binding cassette transporter

ACAID

Anterior chamber-associated immune deviation

Ag

Antigen

AML

Acute myeloid leukemia

BAI

Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor

BDCA

Blood dendritic cell antigen

CTF

C-terminal fragment

DC

Dendritic cell

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

ELMO

Engulfment and cell motility

EMR

EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like

GAIN

GPCR autoproteolysis inducing

GEF

Guanine nucleotide exchange factor

GPCR

G protein-coupled receptor

GPS

GPCR proteolysis site

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

HRM

Hormone receptor motif

HSPC

Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell

IFN

Interferon

IL

Interleukin

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

mAb

Monoclonal antibody

Macrophages

NK

Natural killer

NTF

N-terminal fragment

PtdSer

Phosphatidylserine

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SIRS

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome

TGF

Tumor growth factor

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

Treg

Regulatory T

TSR

Thrombospondin type 1 repeat

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the members of our laboratories for generating a large part of the data discussed in this chapter. This work was supported by grants to J.H. from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Research Unit 2149) and the Thyssen Foundation (2015-00387), to K.S.R. from the National Institutes of Health, USA (GM064709, HD074981, and MH096484), and to H.H.L. from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (MOST-104-2320-B-182-035-MY3) and the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CMRPD1C0633, CMRPD1D0072-3, and CMRPD1D0392).

Author Contributions J.H., C.C.H., H.H.L., C.S.L., and K.S.R. wrote the manuscript.

Competing Financial Interests The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Experimental Immunology, K0-144, Academic Medical CenterUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer BiologyUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyChang Gung UniversityTao-YuanTaiwan
  4. 4.Chang Gung Immunology Consortium and Department of Anatomic PathologyChang Gung Memorial Hospital-LinkouTao-YuanTaiwan

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