Use of Mind Mapping (MM) as an Unconventional Powerful Study Technique in Medical Education

  • Nahlaa A. Khalifa
Part of the Palgrave Studies of Sustainable Business in Africa book series (PSSBA)


This chapter studies the use of mind mapping (MM) as an unconventional but valuable technique in knowledge retrieval and critical thinking in medical education and clinical problems. Library databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and PsychINFO) were used to research both empirical and conceptual literature on the uses of mind mapping in medical education. Mind mapping is a visual technique which accelerates the learning process, inspires problem-solving and critical thinking, and supports effective teaching. There is a lack of significant previous research on using MM in medical institutions in Africa, especially in Sudan. This chapter supports the view that MM methodologies could be more widely implemented in African medical institutes, particularly in Sudan.


  1. Al-Jarf, R. (2009). Enhancing freshman students’ writing skills with a mind mapping software. Paper presented at the 5th international scientific conference, eLearning and software for education, Bucharest.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, J., & Graham, A. (1980). A problem in medical education: Is there an information overload? Medical Education, 14, 4–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anglin, G. J., Hossein, H., & Cunningham, K. L. (2004). Visual representations and learning: The role of static and animated graphics. InHandbook of research on educational communications and technology (2nd ed.). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  4. Anokhin P. K. (1973). The forming of natural and artificial intelligence. Impact of Science in Society, 23(3), 32.Google Scholar
  5. Boyson, G. (2009). The use of mind mapping in teaching and learning. The Learning Institute, Assignment 3.Google Scholar
  6. Buzan, T., & Buzan, B. (1994). The mind map book: How to use radiant thinking to maximize your brain’s untapped potential. New York: Dutton.Google Scholar
  7. D’Antoni, A. V., & Pinto Zipp, G. (2005). Applications of the mind map learning technique in chiropractic education. Journal of Chiropractic Education, 19, 53.Google Scholar
  8. Dolmans, D. H., De Grave, W., Wolfhagen, I. H., & Van Der Vleuten, C. P. (2005). Problem-based learning: Future challenges for educational practice and research. Medical Education, 39, 732–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Farrand, P., Hussain, F., & Hennessy, E. (2002). The efficacy of the “mind map” study technique. Medical Education, 36(5), 426–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Frey, C. (2008, December 18). What are basic ordering ideas and how can they improve your mind mapping? Mind Mapping Software Blog.Google Scholar
  11. Garber A. R. (2001, April 1). Death by power- point. Available from:
  12. Goodnough, K., & Long, R. (2002). Mind mapping: A graphic organizer for the pedagogical toolbox. Science Scope, 25(8), 20–24.Google Scholar
  13. Haber, R. N. (1970). How we remember what we see. Scientific American, 222, 104–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Holland, B., Holland, L., & Davies, J. (2003/2004). An investigation into the concept of mind mapping and the use of mind mapping software to support and improve student academic performance. Learning and teaching projects 2003/2004 (pp. 89–94).Google Scholar
  15. Howe, M. J. A. (1970). ‘Using students’ notes to examine the role of the individual learner in acquiring meaningful subject matter’. Journal of Educational Research, 64, 61–3. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Journal of Experimental Psychology. (2002). Learning, memory and cognition.Google Scholar
  17. Kim, S., Phillips, W. R., Pinsky, L., Brock, D., Phillips, K., & Keary, J. (2006). A conceptual framework for developing teaching cases: A review and synthesis of the literature across disciplines. Medical Education, 40, 867–876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. McArdle, G. E. H. (1993). Delivering effective training sessions: Becoming a confident and competent presenter. Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
  19. Mento, A. J., Martinelli, P., & Jones, R. M. (1999). Mind mapping in executive education: Applications and outcomes. The Journal of Management Development, 18(4), 390–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mueller, A., Johnston, M., & Bligh, D. (2002). Joining mind mapping and care planning to enhance student critical thinking and achieve holistic nursing care. Nursing Diagnosis, 13(1), 24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pudelko, B., Young, M., Vincent-Lamarre, P., & Charlin, B. (2012). Mapping as a learning strategy in health professions education: A critical analysis. Medical Education, 46(12), 1139–1232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shone, R. (1984), Creative Visualization. New York: Thorsons Publishers Inc.Google Scholar
  23. Spencer, J. R., Anderson, K. M., & Ellis, K. K. (2013). Radiant thinking and the use of the mind map in nurse practitioner education. Journal of Nursing Education, 52(5), 291–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sperry. (1968). Split brain study ‘hemisphere deconnection and unity inconscious awareness’. American Psychologist, 23, 723–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Srinivasan, M., McElvany, M., Shay, J. M., Shavelson, R. J., & West, D. C. (2008). Measuring knowledge structure: Reliability of concept mapping assessment in medical education. Academic Medicine, 83(1196), 1203.Google Scholar
  26. Toi, H. (2009). Research on how mind map improves memory. Paper presented at the international conference on thinking, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  27. White, R., & Gunstone, R. (1992). Probing understanding. New York: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  28. Wickramisinghe, A., Widanapathirana, N., Kuruppu, O., Liyanage, I., & Karunathilake I. (2007). Effectivness of mind maps as a learning tool for medical students. South East Asian Journal of Medical Education, 1(1) (inaugural issue).Google Scholar
  29. Willingham, D. T. (2007). Critical thinking. Why is it so hard to teach? Am Educator, 31, 8–19.Google Scholar
  30. Yussof, M., & Baba, A. (2013). Prevalence and associated factors of stress, anxiety and depression among prospective medical students. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 59(2), 128–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zajaczek, J. E., Gotz, F., Kupka, T., Behrends, M., Haubitz, B., Donnerstag, F., Rodt, T., Walter, G. F., Matthies, H. K., & Becker, H. (2006). eLearning in education and advanced training in neuroradiology: Introduction of a web-based teaching and learning application. Neuroradiology, 48, 640–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 International License (, which permits any noncommercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nahlaa A. Khalifa
    • 1
  1. 1.Clinical Nutrition Department, Faculty of Applied Medical SciencesKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations