• Giovanni LiguoriEmail author
  • Gaetano Chiapparrone
  • Stefano Bucci
  • Francesca Vedovo
  • Nicola Pavan
  • Carlo Trombetta
  • Michele Bertolotto


Varicocele is clinically defined as an abnormal dilatation of the veins of the pampiniform plexus with continuous or intermittent reflux of the venous blood. It is actually considered the most common correctable cause of male infertility, even though the mechanisms responsible for infertility are still unclear. The prevalence of this disorder in the general population is approximately 15–20 % [1], and it is involved in up to 40 % of cases of men infertility [2–4].


Valsalva Maneuver Color Doppler Ultrasound Testicular Volume Spermatic Vein Venous Reflux 
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Supplementary material

Video 42.1

Caption (AVI 2374 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni Liguori
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gaetano Chiapparrone
    • 1
  • Stefano Bucci
    • 1
  • Francesca Vedovo
    • 1
  • Nicola Pavan
    • 2
  • Carlo Trombetta
    • 1
  • Michele Bertolotto
    • 3
  1. 1.Department UrologyUniversity of Trieste, Ospedale di CattinaraTriesteItaly
  2. 2.Department of Medical, Surgical and Health ScienceUrology Clinic, University of TriesteTriesteItaly
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Trieste, Ospedale di CattinaraTriesteItaly

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