The Science-Policy Dialogue for Climate Change Adaptation in Mountain Regions
Mountains are among the regions most affected by climate change and they provide some of the most visible evidence of this change such as melting glaciers. While climate change is a global process, adaptation must be based on local contexts, especially in mountain regions with their varied natural and socio-cultural setting and highly differentiated effects of climate change at short distance. The need for mountain-specific adaptation is also given against the background of the key ecosystem goods and services, which they provide to humankind such as freshwater, and which are likely to be affected by climate change. Adaptation has to take place under conditions of uncertainty, but there are options such as Payment for Environmental Services (PES) that allow action under these conditions. Moreover, acting under uncertainty is nothing new for mountain communities. Addressing the science-policy dialogue, we show how this dialogue has been institutionalised in both developed and developing countries, by presenting examples from Switzerland, Kyrgyzstan, and Uganda. We then argue that closing the data gap relating to mountain climates and existing adaptive action could strengthen the science-policy dialogue substantially. To conclude, we advocate the establishment of mountain climate change observatories and the inventorying of promising adaptive action; highlight the need for capacity development and exchange across governmental and non-governmental institutions including mountain communities; and propose a funding window for climate change adaption in mountains for countries in need.
KeywordsMountains Climate change Specific adaptation Ecosystem services Science-policy dialogue Institutionalisation
- ADB. (2014). Climate change and sustainable water management in Central Asia, Asian Development Bank ADB Central and West Asia working paper series, NO. 5, May 2014, FCG International, Dr. Mikko Punkari, Dr. Peter Droogers, Dr. Walter Immerzeel, Natalia Korhonen, Arthur Lutz, and Dr. Ari Venäläinen, 2014, Asian Development Bank.Google Scholar
- AGOCA. (2015). Rapid assessment survey findings for 32 AGOCA villages of 3 countries of Central Asia, Central Asia Mountain Hub at University of Central Asia (CAMH/UCA) and Alliance of Central Asian Mountain Villages (AGOCA), 2015. Bishkek.Google Scholar
- Brönnimann, S., Andrade, M., & Diaz, H. F. (2014/1). Climate change and mountains. In Mountains and climate change: A global concern (Sustainable mountain development series, pp. 8–13). Bern: Centre for Development and Environment, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, and Geographica Bernensia.Google Scholar
- Brönnimann, S., Appenzeller, C., Croci-Maspoli, M., Fuhrer, J., Grosjean, M., Hohmann, R., Ingold, K., Knutti, R., Liniger, M. A., Raible, C. C., Röthlisberger, R., Schär, C., Scherrer, S. C., Strassmann, K., & Thalmann, P. (2014/2). Climate change in Switzerland: A review of physical, institutional, and political aspects. WIREs Climate Change, 5, 461–481. doi: 10.1002/wcc.280.
- Chasek, P., Wagner, L., & Zartman, I. W. (2015). Six ways to make climate negotiations more effective (Policy Brief Fixing Climate Governance Series, 3/2015). Ontario: Centre for International Governance Innovation.Google Scholar
- Clar, C., Prutsch, A., & Steurer, R. (2015). Barriers and guidelines in adaptation policy making: Taking stock, analysing congruence and providing guidance. Vienna: Institute of Forest, Environment and Natural Resource Policy, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences.Google Scholar
- Collins, M., Knutti, R., Arblaster, J. M., Dufresne, J. L., Fichefet, T., Friedlingstein, P., Gao, X., Gutowski, W. J., Johns, T., Krinner, G., Shongwe, M., Tebaldi, C., Weaver, A. J., & Wehner, M. (2013). Long-term climate change: Projections, commitments and irreversibility. In T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G. K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, & P. M. Midgley (Eds.), Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (pp. 1029–1136). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Dee, D. P., Uppala, S. M., Simmons, A. J., Berrisford, P., Poli, P., Kobayashi, S., Andrae, U., Balmaseda, M. A., Balsamo, G., Bauer, P., Bechtold, P., Beljaars, A. C. M., van de Berg, L., Bidlot, J., Bormann, N., Delsol, C., Dragani, R., Fuentes, M., Geer, A. J., Haimberger, L., Healy, S. B., Hersbach, H., Hólm, E. V., Isaksen, L., Kållberg, P., Köhler, M., Matricardi, M., McNally, A. P., Monge-Sanz, B. M., Morcrette, J.-J., Park, B.-K., Peubey, C., de Rosnay, P., Tavolato, C., Thépaut, J.-N., & Vitart, F. (2011). The ERA-interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 137(656), 553–597. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1002/qj.828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- European Climate Adaptation Platform. (2015). http://climate-adapt.eea.europa.eu/uncertainty-guidance/topic. Accessed 06 Apr 2015.
- Federal Council. (2012). Strategie des Bundesrates zur Anpassung an den Klimawandel in der Schweiz. http://www.bafu.admin.ch/klima/13877/14401/index.html?lang=de. Accessed 08 Mar 2015.
- IDB. (2012). Interamerican Development Bank. 2012. The challenge of the watershed integrated management: Analysis of the IDB actions in the watershed management programs. IDB Evaluation and Supervision Unit.Google Scholar
- Kohler, T., Wehrli, A., & Jurek, M. (2014). Mountains and climate change: A global concern (Sustainable mountain development series). Bern: Centre for Development and Environment, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, and Geographica Bernensia.Google Scholar
- MoH Kyrgyzstan. (2011). Health sector programme for the Kyrgyz Republic on Climate Change Adaptation for 2011–2015, Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic (MoH Kyrgyzstan), 2011. Bishkek.Google Scholar
- Myhren, S. M. (2007). Rural livelihood and forest management by Mount Elgon. Kenya: Noragric.Google Scholar
- Neu, U. (2009). Climate change in mountains. In T. Kohler & D. Maselli (Eds.), Mountains and climate change: From understanding to action (pp. 6–9). Bern: Geographica Bernensia, with the support of the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation.Google Scholar
- OcCC. (2015). Organe consultative sur les changements climatiques. www.OcCC.ch. Accessed 06 Sept 2015.
- OcCC and ProClim. (2007). Climate change and Switzerland 2050. Expected impacts on environment. Bern: Society and Economy. OcCC/ProClim – Forum for Climate and Global Change.Google Scholar
- Schmocker, J., Liniger, H. P., Ngeru, J. N., Brugnara, Y., Auchmann, R., & Brönnimann, S. (2015). Trends in mean and extreme precipitation in the Mount Kenya region from observations and reanalyses. International Journal of Climatology. doi: 10.1002/joc.4438. Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com).Google Scholar
- UNCED Conference Rio. (2012). Outcome document. http://www.un.org/disabilities/documents/rio20_outcome_document_complete.pdf. Accessed on 07 July 2015.
- von Wymann, D. S., Romeo, R. L., Vita, A., Wurzinger, M., & Kohler, T. (Eds.). (2013). Mountain farming is family farming. A contribution from mountain areas to the International Year of Family Farming 2014. Rome: FAO; Centre for Development and Environment University of Bern; Centre for Development Research of the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna.Google Scholar
- Weingartner, R. (2014). Mountain waters and climate change from a socio-economic perspective. In T. Kohler, A. Wehrli, & M. Jurek (Eds.), Mountains and climate change: A global concern (Sustainable mountain development series). Bern: Centre for Development and Environment, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, and Geographica Bernensia.Google Scholar
- Wiesmann, U., Kiteme, B., & Mwangi, Z. (2014). Socio-economic Atlas of Kenya: Depicting the National Population Census by county and sub-location. Nairobi: KNBS, Nanyuki: CETRAD, Bern: CDE.Google Scholar
Further References (Referring to Table 2, Central Asia)
- Tajikistan. The third national communication of the Republic of Tajikistan under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, State Agency for Hydrometeorology of the Committee for Environmental Protection. Available at: www.unfccc.int/essential_background/library/items/3599.php?rec=j&priref=7785#beg.
- The Kyrgyz Republic’s Second National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Ministry of Ecology and Emergencies of the Kyrgyz Republic. Available at: www.unfccc.int/resource/docs/natc/kyrnc2e.pdf.
- Towards Paris. (2015). What does a new global climate policy mean for Central Asia? Regional Environmental Center for Central Asia (CAREC) and Asia Pacific Adaptation Network (APAN), August 2015, Almaty.Google Scholar