Advertisement

What Kind of Welcome? Addressing the Integration Needs of Central American Children and Adolescents in US Local Communities

  • Elżbieta M. Goździak
Chapter

Abstract

Unaccompanied child migrants from Central America and Mexico arriving at the US southern border became national news in the summer of 2014. Child advocates called for protecting the children and ensuring due process in immigration proceedings. The attention centered on the push factors driving the arrival of unaccompanied children and their treatment while in government custody. This chapter focuses on integration challenges these young people face while awaiting their immigration hearing. It aims to answer the following questions: How will they fare in the families and communities to whom they have been released? Will their relatives embrace them? How will antiimmigrant sentiments affect their daily lives? Will they be integrated into US schools or even go to school? Who will support them?

Keywords

Immigrant Child Immigrant Student Immigrant Youth Refugee Child Unify School District 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Works Cited

  1. Abdullah, Halimah. 2014. Not in My Backyard: Communities Protest Surge of Immigrant Kids. CNN, July 16. http://www.cnn.com/2014/07/15/politics/immigration-not-in-my-backyard/
  2. Alba, Richard, Jennifer Holdaway, and Josh DeWind (ed). 2013. The Children of Immigrants at School. A Comparative Look at Integration in the United States and Western Europe. New York: NYU Press.Google Scholar
  3. Berrol, Selma C. 1995. Growing Up American: Immigrant Children in America, Then and Now. New York: Twayne.Google Scholar
  4. Bill Frelick. 2014. Are Central American Kids the New Boat People? Politico, August 13.Google Scholar
  5. Blume, Howard. 2014. LAUSD Opens Doors to Young Central American Immigrants. LA Times, August 13.Google Scholar
  6. Bump, Micah N., B. Lindsay Lowell, and Silje Pettersen. 2005. Immigrants and Minorities in America’s New settlement States. In Beyond the Gateway. Immigrants in a Changing America, ed. Elżbieta M. Goździak, and Susan F. Martin. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  7. Campo-Flores, Arian, and Miriam Jordan. 2014. Central American Migrant Wave Tests Schools. Districts Grapple With Cost, Integration Challenges as Enrollment Spikes. Capital Journal, August 13. http://online.wsj.com/articles/central-american-migrant-wave-tests-schools-1407968536
  8. Center for Gender and Refugee Studies, Kids in Need of Defense (KIND). 2014. A Treacherous Journey: Child Migrants Navigating the US Immigration System. San Francisco and Washington, DC. http://cgrs.uchastings.edu/our-work/treacherous-journey
  9. Conde, Yvonne M. 2000. Operation Pedro Pan. The Untold Exodus of 14,048 Cuban Children. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Constable, Pamela. 2014. Maryland, Virginia Suburbs Receive Surge of Border Kids from Central America. The Washington Post, August 27.Google Scholar
  11. Crowley, Martha, Daniel T. Lichter, and Zhenchao Qian. 2006. Beyond Gateway Cities: Economic Restructuring and Poverty Among Mexican Immigrant Families and Children. Family Relations 55(3): 345–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Deitch, Charlie. 2014. Anti-Immigrant Sentiment Reaches Fever Pitch over Central American Child Refugees. Pittsburgh City Paper, July 30.Google Scholar
  13. Faltis, Kelly. 2011. Bilingual, ESL, and English Immersion: Educational Models for Limited English Proficient Students in Texas. Peperdine Policy Review (Spring): 81–98.Google Scholar
  14. Fry, R. 2005. The Higher Dropout Rate of Foreign-Born Teens: The Role of Schooling Abroad. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center.Google Scholar
  15. Gold, Jenny. 2014a. A Child, An Immigration Hearing, and a Doctor’s Testimony. The Atlantic, December 8. http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2014/12/a-child-an-immigration-hearing-and-a-doctors-testimony/383169/2/
  16. ———. 2014b. Doctor’s Testimony Crucial as Border Children Seek Asylum. Kaiser Health News, December 9.Google Scholar
  17. Goździak, Elżbieta M. 2014a. Dreams Deferred: The Effects of Undocumented Status on Latino Youths’ Education and Livelihoods. In Hidden Lives and Human Rights in the United States: Understanding the Controversies and Tragedies of Undocumented Immigration, ed. Lois Lorentzen. ABC-CLIO: Santa Barbara, CA.Google Scholar
  18. Goździak, Elżbieta M. 2014b. To Dream or Not to Dream. The Effects of Immigration Status, Discrimination, and Parental Influence on Latino Children’s Access to Education. Migration Studies 2(3 November): 392–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goździak, Elżbieta M., and Joseph Russell-Jenkins. 2013. Paperless and Jobless: The Effects of Undocumented Status on Latino Youth Access to Employment. Research report.Google Scholar
  20. Greenberg, Mark. 2014. Statement by Mark Greenberg Acting Assistant Secretary Administration for Children and Families US Department of Health and Human Services Before the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. United States Senate, July 9.Google Scholar
  21. Grossman, Kathy Lynn. 2014. Survey: Most Americans See Migrant Central Americans Children as Refugees. The Washington Post, August 1.Google Scholar
  22. Holzer, Harry J. 2011. Raising Job Quality and Skills for American Workers: Creating More-Effective Education and Workforce Development Systems in the States. The Brookings Institution. The Hamilton Project. http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2011/11/workforce-holzer
  23. Johnson, Dirk. 2000. The Elian Gonzalez Case: The Refugees: Children of “Operation Pedro Pan” Recall Painful Separation from Parents. The New York Times, April 22. http://www.nytimes.com/2000/04/22/us/elian-gonzalez-case-refugees-children-operation-pedro-pan-recall-painful.html
  24. Johnson, Kay. 2002. Children of the Dust. Time Magazine, May 13.Google Scholar
  25. Martinez, Isabel. 2009. What’s Age Gotta Do with It? Understanding the Age-Identities and School-Going Practices of Mexican Immigrant Youth in New York City. High School Journal 92(4): 34–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Migration and Child Welfare National Network. n.d. Latino Children of Immigrants in the Child Welfare System: The National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being.Google Scholar
  27. National Compadres Network. n.d. Culturally Based Training and Curricula Overview. San Jose, CA. http://www.nationalcompadresnetwork.com/training/training-curricula/
  28. Ngo, Bic, and Stacey J. Lee. 2007. Complicating the Image of Modern Minority Success: A Review of Southeast Asian American Education. Review of Educational Research 77: 415–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Office of the City of New York. 2014. Mayor Bill de Blasio and Commissioner of Immigrant Affairs Nisha Agarwal Announce Unprecedented City Educational and Health Support for Unaccompanied Migrant Children at the NYC Federal Immigration Court. NYC Resources, September 16. http://www1.nyc.gov/office-of-the-mayor/news/441-14/mayor-bill-de-blasio-commissioner-immigrant-affairs-nisha-agarwal-unprecedented
  30. Oropesa, R.S., and N. Landale. 2009. Why Do Immigrant Youth Who Never Enroll in US Schools Matter? School Enrollment of Mexicans and Non-Hispanic Whites. Sociology of Education 82: 240–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Passel, J.S., and D. Cohn. 2009. A Portrait of Unauthorized Immigrants in the United States. Washington, DC. Pew Hispanic Center.Google Scholar
  32. Ramirez, J. David, Sandra D. Yuen, Dena R. Ramey, David J. Pasta, and David K. Billings. 1991. Executive Summary of the Final Report: Longitudinal Study of Structured English Immersion Strategy, Early-Exit and Late-Exit Bilingual Education Programs for Language Minority Children. Prepared for the US Department of Education by Aguirre International.Google Scholar
  33. Redlener, Irwin. 2014. Undocumented Children Need Charitable Help. USA Today, June 25. http://www.usatoday.com/story/opinion/2014/06/25/immigration-children-new-york-caritas-column/11326925/
  34. Ryan, Kelly. 2014. Unaccompanied and Separated Minors: A Call for a Multidisciplinary Response to a Humanitarian Crisis. Migration Policy and Practice 4(3 July–September): 4–10.Google Scholar
  35. Seghetti, Lisa, Alison Siskin, and Ruth Ellen Wasem. 2014. Unaccompanied Alien Children: An Overview. Congressional Research Service, June 23.Google Scholar
  36. Song, Miri. 1999. Helping Out: Children’s Labor in Ethnic Business. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  37. St. John, Warren. 2007. Refugees Find Hostility and Hope on Soccer Field. The New York Times, January 21. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/21/us/21fugees.html?em&ex=1169701200&en=1fa37aebc606b997&ei=5087
  38. Stinchcomb, Dennis, and Eric Hershberg. 2014. Unaccompanied Migrant Children from Central America. Context, Causes, and Responses. CLALS Working Paper Series No. 7, November.Google Scholar
  39. Strain, Michael R. 2014. The Problem Isn’t Central America’s Child Refugees. It’s the Countries They Come From. The Washington Post, August 1.Google Scholar
  40. Suárez-Orozco, Carola, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Robert T. Teranishi, and Marcelo M. Suárez-Orozco. 2011. Growing Up in the Shadows: The Developmental Implications of Unauthorized Status. Harvard Educational Review 81(3): 438–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Summerfield, Derek. 1999. A Critique of Seven Assumptions Behind Psychological Trauma Programmes in War-Affected Areas. Social Science and Medicine 48(10): 1449–1462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. ———. 2000. Childhood, War, Refugeedom and ‘Trauma’: Three Core Questions for Mental Health Professionals. Transcultural Psychiatry 37(3): 417–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tasneem, Raja. 2014. Child Migrants Have Been Coming to America Since Ellis Island. Mother Jones, Friday, July 18. http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2014/07/child-migrant-ellis-island-history
  44. Taxin, Amy. 2014. Overwhelmed Immigration Courts Could Face Further Delays. Christian Science Monitor, July 12. http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Latest-News-Wires/2014/0712/Overwhelmed-immigration-courts-could-face-further-delays
  45. Terrio, Susan. 2014. ‘Life Ended There,’ Rare Interviews with Children of America’s Border Disaster. Politico, July 10.Google Scholar
  46. Tisch, Merryl. 2014. Immigrant Kids Squeezing Budgets. NY Daily News, November 10.Google Scholar
  47. UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). 2014. Children on the Run. Unaccompanied Children Leaving Central America and Mexico and the Need for International Protection. UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Regional Office for the United States and the Caribbean. Washington, DC. http://unhcrwashington.org/children
  48. US Conference of Catholic Bishops, Lutheran Immigrant and Refugee Service. n.d. Post-Release Services: Family Preservation Services for Immigrant Children Recently Released from Custody: Frequently Asked Questions. http://www.usccb.org/about/children-and-migration/upload/LIRS-and-USCCB-Post-Release-Services-FAQs-Final.pdf
  49. US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Administration for Children and Families. n.d. Fact Sheet: US Department of Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Refugee Resettlement, Unaccompanied Alien Children Program. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/orr/orr_uc_updated_fact_sheet_1416.pdf
  50. US Department of State. 2014. In-Country Refugee/Parole Program for Minors in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras With Parents Lawfully Present in the United States, November 14. http://www.state.gov/j/prm/releases/factsheets/2014/234067.htm
  51. Welcoming America. 2014. US Mayors: “We Will Provide Compassion and Care for Children Fleeing Violence,” Decatur, GA, October 1. https://www.welcomingamerica.org/news/us-mayors-%E2%80%9Cwe-will-provide-compassion-and-care-children-fleeing-violence%E2%80%9D#
  52. White House, Office of the Vice President. 2014. Remarks to the Press with Q&A by Vice President Joe Biden in Guatemala, June 20.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elżbieta M. Goździak
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for the Study of International Migration (ISIM)Georgetown UniversityWashington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations