Advertisement

On Implementing Real-Time Specification Patterns Using Observers

  • John D. BackesEmail author
  • Michael W. Whalen
  • Andrew Gacek
  • John Komp
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9690)

Abstract

English language requirements are often used to specify the behavior of complex cyber-physical systems. The process of transforming these requirements to a formal specification language is often challenging, especially if the specification language does not contain constructs analogous to those used in the original requirements. For example, requirements often contain real-time constraints, but many specification languages for model checkers have discrete time semantics. Work in specification patterns helps to bridge these gaps, allowing straightforward expression of common requirements patterns in formal languages. In this work we demonstrate how we support real-time specification patterns in the Assume Guarantee Reasoning Environment (AGREE) using observers. We demonstrate that there are subtle challenges, not mentioned in previous literature, to express real-time patterns accurately using observers. We then demonstrate that these patterns are sufficient to model real-time requirements for a real-world avionics system.

Keywords

Model Checker Transition System Temporal Logic Specification Language Transition Relation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Dwyer, M.B., Avrunin, G.S., Corbett, J.C.: Patterns in property specifications for finite-state verification. In: ICSE, pp. 411–420. IEEE (1999)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Konrad, S., Cheng, B.H.: Real-time specification patterns. In: Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Software Engineering, pp. 372–381. ACM (2005)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gruhn, V., Laue, R.: Patterns for timed property specifications. Electron. Notes Theoret. Comput. Sci. 153, 117–133 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bellini, P., Nesi, P., Rogai, D.: Expressing and organizing real-time specification patterns via temporal logics. J. Syst. Softw. 82, 183–196 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Reinkemeier, P., Stierand, I., Rehkop, P., Henkler, S.: A pattern-based requirement specification language: mapping automotive specific timing requirements. In: Fachtagung des GI-Fachbereichs Softwaretechnik, pp. 99–108 (2011)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Etzien, C., Gezgin, T., Froschle, S., Henkler, S., Rettberg, A.: Contracts for evolving systems. In: ISORC, pp. 1–8 (2013)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Alur, R.: Techniques for automatic verification of real-time systems. Ph.D. thesis, stanford university (1991)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Koymans, R.: Specifying real-time properties with metric temporal logic. Real-time Syst. 2, 255–299 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Moser, L.E., Ramakrishna, Y., Kutty, G., Melliar-Smith, P.M., Dillon, L.K.: A graphical environment for the design of concurrent real-time systems. ACM Trans. Softw. Eng. Methodol. (TOSEM) 6, 31–79 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Abid, N., Dal Zilio, S., Le Botlan, D.: Real-time specification patterns and tools. In: Stoelinga, M., Pinger, R. (eds.) FMICS 2012. LNCS, vol. 7437, pp. 1–15. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Halbwachs, N., Caspi, P., Raymond, P., Pilaud, D.: The synchronous dataflow programming language LUSTRE. Proc. IEEE 79, 1305–1320 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Backes, J., Cofer, D., Miller, S., Whalen, M.W.: Requirements analysis of a quad-redundant flight control system. In: Havelund, K., Holzmann, G., Joshi, R. (eds.) NFM 2015. LNCS, vol. 9058, pp. 82–96. Springer, Heidelberg (2015)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Murugesan, A., Heimdahl, M.P., Whalen, M.W., Rayadurgam, S., Komp, J., Duan, L., Kim, B.G., Sokolsky, O., Lee, I.: From requirements to code: model based development of a medical cyber physical system. SEHC (2014)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cofer, D., Gacek, A., Miller, S., Whalen, M.W., LaValley, B., Sha, L.: Compositional verification of architectural models. In: Goodloe, A.E., Person, S. (eds.) NFM 2012. LNCS, vol. 7226, pp. 126–140. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Feiler, P.H., Gluch, D.P.: Model-Based Engineering with AADL: An Introduction to the SAE Architecture Analysis & Design Language, 1st edn. Addison-Wesley Professional, Reading (2012)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    CESAR: The CESAR project (2010). http://www.cesarproject.eu/
  17. 17.
    Dutertre, B., Sorea, M.: Timed systems in SAL. Technical report, SRI International (2004)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pike, L.: Real-time system verification by \(k\)-induction. Technical report, NASA (2005)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gao, J., Whalen, M., Van Wyk, E.: Extending lustre with timeout automata. In: SLA++P (2007)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gacek, A., Backes, J., Whalen, M.W., Cofer, D.: AGREE Users Guide (2014). http://github.com/smaccm/smaccm
  21. 21.
    Gómez, R., Bowman, H.: Efficient detection of zeno runs in timed automata. In: Raskin, J.-F., Thiagarajan, P.S. (eds.) FORMATS 2007. LNCS, vol. 4763, pp. 195–210. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gafni, V., Benveniste, A., Caillaud, B., Graf, S., Josko, B.: Contract specification language (CSL). Technical report, SPEEDS Deliverable D.2.5.4 (2008)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pike, L.: Modeling time-triggered protocols and verifying their real-time schedules. In: Formal Methods in Computer-Aided Design, pp. 231–238 (2007)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sorea, M., Dutertre, B., Steiner, W.: Modeling and verification of time-triggered communication protocols. In: 2008 11th IEEE International Symposium on Object Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC), pp. 422–428. IEEE (2008)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Li, W., Grard, L., Shankar, N.: Design and verification of multi-rate distributed systems. In: 2015 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Formal Methods and Models for Codesign (MEMOCODE), pp. 20–29 (2015)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • John D. Backes
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael W. Whalen
    • 2
  • Andrew Gacek
    • 1
  • John Komp
    • 2
  1. 1.Rockwell CollinsBloomingtonUSA
  2. 2.University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations