Minimal Virtual Reality System for Virtual Walking in a Real Scene

  • Michiteru KitazakiEmail author
  • Koichi Hirota
  • Yasushi Ikei
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9734)


Various sensory stimuli are required to accomplish a fully virtual walking system because walking is related to multimodal sensations. We developed a minimal virtual walking system and evaluated it using psychological factors. The system consisted of a real-scene optic flow and rhythmic foot vibrations. We tested the effects of vibrations synchronized with optic flow and the size of the visual field on the sensations of virtual walking and found that synchronized, two-channel foot vibrations with a 3-D optic flow elicited the virtual walking sensation. A larger visual field enhanced the footstep sensation during walking.


Walking Virtual reality Optic flow Vection Tactile sensation Vibration 



This research was supported in part by the SCOPE program (141203019), and a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) (#26240029 and #15H01701). We thank Atsuhiro Fujita, Takaaki Hayashizaki, Katsuya Yoshiho, Keisuke Goto, and Shohei Ueda for data collection and analysis.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michiteru Kitazaki
    • 1
    Email author
  • Koichi Hirota
    • 2
  • Yasushi Ikei
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringToyohashi University of TechnologyToyohashiJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Information SystemsThe University of Electro-CommunicationsTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of System DesignTokyo Metropolitan UniversityTokyoJapan

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