Service Design Strategies for Long-Term Effects that Individual Moments Have on the Whole: A Case Study of “Persephone”
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The essay targets at exploring the strategies on service design for promoting the long-term effects that generated by every individual moment through probing into design strategies of every single part of the real-time user experiences of an aftermath rescue service system “Persephone”.
KeywordsGroup effect Long-term effect Group consciousness Persephone Service design User experience
Earthquake is one of the most powerful disasters in the world. More than 300 million people have been seriously affected in the earthquake at 20 century. There are more than 18 % areas, and 12 % populations on earth are under the risk, and the earthquake may come suddenly without any advancing warning. No matter how advanced technology we have, human lives remain fragile in the face of earthquakes, because major survival technologies may corrupt.
In China, the underdeveloped western areas often suffer from deadly earthquake made worse by poor infrastructure and planning. It takes time for the outside rescue resources to reach the stricken areas, making the existing resources become far more inessential in the golden rescue areas. Ensuring the supply of food and safe drinking water and trying to restore good sanitation are critical, which help save more lives. However, every single resource allocation is based on the efficiency of communication. Taking the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, for instance, the damages of the base stations, the lacking of electricity, and the traffic jam caused by exceeded number of users all exacerbated the efficiency of communication. The main goals of designing Persephone rescue system is to make every user stays notices, informed and connected in case of severe aftermath situations. Persephone helps users stay noticed, informed and targeted by opening up an entrance for the first time rescue and information exchange among victims. Based on the combination of P2P meshed network and the traditional cellular services, the success and efficiency of Persephone are based on mutual help, a number of participants and the delayed data accumulation. As a result, our design purpose is to increase user participation and increase the time user stay online. Users take advantages of Persephone to get access to the information they need. The concealed meaning, which is hard detected by users in the process of interaction. When a user is trying to connect others, he or she is also the crucial bridge of information delivery. In the other words, when a user is sending out a message asking for help, meanwhile the user himself or herself is also a significant node help others exchange information in the whole system. The resource data generated by groups of users could also help government and organizations conduct the resource allocation management. Consequently, it is crucial to promote user participation and residence time on Persephone app thus to promote better group effects. In order to develop a comprehensive approach to the user experience of Persephone, authors probe into user demands and psychology through a series of user research.
2 Research Methodology
When the presence of every individual user is a significant part of the whole rescue system, and the benefit from this group value may also return to the user, the key point of getting better group benefits is to make the long-term effect and group benefit perceivable and foreseeable by the participated users in the process of service receiving. The authors accumulated the data to analyze social-related thinking models, rescue concepts and current rescue behaviors of various victims survived in Wenchuan earthquake by the methodology of persona analyze. Then we organized the data with the framework of POMES (people, object, environment, message, service), structured the user needs, and sort out the relationship between users role-related behaviors and their corresponding mental perceptions. Then the authors explored the possible development of Persephone service design guidelines to help users have better emotional control, perspective taking, and to show expression of respect. On the purpose of the conversion from the user demands to design guidelines, the research applies the model of Means-end Chain and uses it to transform different kinds of user demands to the corresponding guidelines for service design.
2.1 Data Accumulation
Survey. A survey of 28 survivors from 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake through persona analyze by the in-depth interview and a five-person focus group. They are college students, government officers, merchants, and soldiers. Each in-depth interview is about 40 min. We ask people to describe their experiences of Wenchuan Earthquake. Following, we designed several scenarios by showing them video documentaries and coming up with questions. We ask them about their choices, demands, behaviors, and psychological movements. For the focus group, the researchers displayed some typical problems and demands gathered from the in-depth interviews, and came up with some design proposals. The researchers piled up rich data with tones of video, photos and recordings.
Questionaire. Methods to conduct the survey by sending out a questionnaire to 514 people of different ages and occupations came from earthquake belt areas like Wenchuan, Beichuan, Mianzhu, Chongqing, Baoji, and Xian. We greatly enriched data by questionnaires.
2.2 POEMS and Personal Analysis
The norm of reciprocity is the expectation that users will respond favorably to each other by returning benefits for benefits, and responding with either indifference or hostility to harms . The norm of reciprocity could be the motivation and also the surveillance to promoting users be a part of the system. Even if a user is neither seeking for help or offering help, it is sensible to stay online in terms of “Norm of Reciprocity”. Embedding the idea of the core technique of the P2P meshed network in the service design is a good way to chase for the “Norm of Reciprocity”. Every user is a significant node for the whole information change, especially for the users who is a single bridge between two group of users, which is indispensable. However, for the government, public opinions supervise their behaviors when they do the resource statistic and allocating and strategy making.
Self-actualization is a term that has been used in various psychology theories, the quest for spiritual enlightenment. The concept was brought most fully to prominence in Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory as the final level of psychological development that can be achieved. Showing how much influence a single users behavior has on the whole. Every small step of further approaching on help offering deserves a feedback, which is a subconscious and implicit motivation that encouraging users to explore more.
The sense of security is essential and for the people who is calling for help, which offers them courage and patience in the severe situation. The sense of security is essential. For the people who is calling for help, the sense of security offers them courage and patience in the severe situation. One of a good way to chase the sense of security is to enhance the frequency communication and decrease the chances that messages had been sent out but had no return. Each users status will be visible to all users in the same area, users can tap the note to see every users current status.
3 Service Design Strategies for Promoting User Experience in Individual Moments
3.1 Roles and Characters
This design is in perspective of building the sense of security, which means the more severe and emergency the situations are, the fewer operations the users need to do, and the most crucial information will always be launched to the public. The same tags go for the role of “I am safe and I can offer help”, by means of achieving the sense of consistency, and making everything comprehensible and efficiency. Three roles can be changed due to the slider bar by very easy operations as users role could change over time. The updated information of users role will be broadcasted to the public one minute after user editing to prevent false operation, and to increase information change efficiency by minimizing information load over the whole system.
3.2 Location and Resource Launching
Every movement of a single user can be accessed by the nearby users made the norm of reciprocity visible by each user. In real situations, a user can have a dominating role as “I need help” or “I am safe and I can offer help”, and also be an observer on the third perspective. Being a part of the system and out of the system at the same time, users will get attentions of other and get noticed by others at the same time. People are motivated by progress, mastery and control. When they feel they are learning and mastering the situation, they are more motivated to be part of it . Also perceiving something does not mean paying attention to something, the existing features of making everyone feels a sense of control in the chaotic situation could not only motivate people reacting more in the dimensions of information sharing and exchange, but also help resource supporters getting the sense of self- actualization, and encourage them to explore more.
3.3 Emotional Design Respect: People, Families and Friends
3.4 Communications and Notifications
Users can launch a targeted user on the resource map to do the information exchange, using other users as the bridge of message delivery. “The Group chat” is added to the system as one of the communication features. Doing things together bonds people together, and people who engaged in synchronizing activities are more cooperative in completing subsequent tasks (Scott Wiltermuth and Chip Heath, 2009). Group activities could be organized in group chat, and build the sense of security for each single user. Notification (Fig. 7) is the window to receive information from the outside of the disastrous areas. The notification could be editing from Perseboard, which is the data buffer running on Azure.
This research is based on the service design of Persephone, an aftermath rescue system taking advantage of P2P meshed network. Through user research based on the methodology of persona and POEMS, and sort out the relationship between users role-related behaviors and their corresponding mental perceptions, and transform different kinds of user demands to the corresponding guidelines for service design in the perspectives of “The norm of reciprocity”, “Empathy”, “Self-actualisation” and “The sense of security”. By probing into design strategies of every single part of the real-time user experiences of an aftermath rescue service system “Persephone”, the authors explored the possible development of Persephone service design to help users have better emotional control, perspective taking, to show expression of respect in the process of service receiving, thus promotes the long-term effects that individual moments have on the whole. However, the study has its limits in data supporting because of the few amount of data samples. Although typical, the aftermath situation Wenchuan earthquake cant represent the whole China. Enrich the source of data accumulation could help us explore more possibilities of design strategies that could promote long-term effects by enriching user experiences in individual moments.
Thanks. This study was completed by the cooperation of Imagine the world, and Shanghai Jiaotong University. All the products presented above are original designs from Imagine the World.
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