Designing a Support System to Mitigate Pilot Error While Minimizing Out-of-the-Loop-Effects

  • Nikolaus TheißingEmail author
  • Axel Schulte
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9736)


This article describes a design pattern for human-autonomy teaming in which a human operator is supported by two cognitive agents. The first agent automates delegated tasks as a subordinate in a hierarchical relationship. The second agent serves as an assistant system. Its task is the mitigation, i.e. prevention and correction, of human erroneous behavior. Error-correcting automation can be prone to complacency effects. The assistant system is therefore specifically designed to avoid potential out-of-the-loop phenomena. The design pattern is implemented for the use case of unmanned air reconnaissance using a single-operator ground control station. The results of an experimental campaign confirm the validity of the approach.


Human-autonomy teaming Human error Error mitigation Assistant system Cognitive agent Complacency 


  1. 1.
    Bainbridge, L.: Ironies of automation. Automatica. 19, 775–779 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sarter, N.B., Woods, D.D., Billings, C.E.: Automation surprises. In: Salvendy, G. (ed.) Handbook of Human Factors & Ergonomics, 2nd edn, pp. 1–25. Wiley (1997)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sheridan, T.B.: Task analysis, task allocation and supervisory control. In: Helander, M.G., Landauer, T.K., Prabhu, P.V (eds.) Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction, pp. 87–103. Elsevier Science B. V. (1997)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Parasuraman, R., Molloy, R., Singh, I.L.: Performance Consequences of Automation-Induced ‘Complacency’. Int. J. Aviat. Psychol. 3, 1–23 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kaber, D., Endsley, M.: Out-of-the-loop performance problems and the use of intermediate levels of automation for improved control system functioning and safety. Process Saf. Prog. 16(3), 126–131 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schulte, A., Donath, D., Lange, D.S.: Design patterns for human-cognitive agent teaming. In: Harris, D. (ed.) EPCE 2016. LNCS(LNAI), vol. 9736, pp. 231–243. Springer, Heidelberg (2016)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Onken, R., Schulte, A.: System-Ergonomic Design of Cognitive Automation. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Clauß, S., Schulte, A.: Task delegation in an agent supervisory control relationship capability awareness in a cognitive agent. In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC), pp. 825–830. IEEE (2014)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hollnagel, E.: Looking for errors of omission and commission or The Hunting of the Snark revisited. Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf. 68, 135–145 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jensen, K., Kristensen, L.M.: Coloured Petri Nets: Modelling and Validation of Concurrent Systems. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barreiro, J., Boyce, M., Do, M., Frank, J., Iatauro, M., Kichkaylo, T., Morris, P., Ong, J., Remolina, E., Smith, T., Smith, D.: EUROPA: A Platform for AI Planning, Scheduling, Constraint Programming, and Optimization (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Endsley, M.R.: Situation awareness global assessment technique (SAGAT). In: Proceedings of the National Aerospace and Electronics Conference (NAECON), New York, pp. 789–795 (1988)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hart, S.G., Staveland, L.E.: Development of NASA-TLX (Task Load Index): results of empirical and theoretical research. Adv. Psychol. 52, 139–183 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Theißing, N., Liegel, A., Schulte, A.: Verhindern von Pilotenfehlern durch ein zustandsadaptives Assistenzsystem. In: Grandt, M., Schmerwitz, S. (eds.) Kooperation und kooperative Systeme in der Fahrzeug- und Prozessführung, pp. 97–114. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft- und Raumfahrt - Lilienthal-Oberth e.V, Bonn (2015)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Flight SystemsUniversität der Bundeswehr MünchenNeubibergGermany

Personalised recommendations