An Online Gaze-Independent BCI System Used Dummy Face with Eyes Only Region as Stimulus

  • Long Chen
  • Brendan Z. Allison
  • Yu Zhang
  • Xingyu WangEmail author
  • Jing JinEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9743)


The gaze-independent brain-computer interface (BCI) based on rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) is an extension of the oddball paradigm, and can facilitate communication for people with severe neuromuscular disorders. Some studies suggested that a face with eyes only (without other facial features) could evoke ERPs as high as a complete face. To evaluate the performance of a BCI system, an online system is needed. In this paper, we compared two types of stimuli: a dummy face with eyes only and a colored circle. Ten healthy subjects (8 male, aged 24–28 years, mean 26 ± 1.5) participated in our experiment. The results showed that the dummy face with eyes only had substantial advantages in online classification accuracy (t = 2.3, p = 0.04) and information transfer rate (t = 3.4, p = 0.003). Results from users’ feedback also showed that the dummy face with eyes only stimulus was more easily accepted (t = 4.12, p < 0.001).


Event-related potentials Brain-computer interface (BCI) Dummy face with eyes only Gaze-independent 



This work was supported in part by the Grant National Natural Science Foundation of China, under Grant Numbers 61573142,61203127, 91420302, 61305028 and supported part by Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project, Project Number: B504. This work was also supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (WG1414005, WH1314023 and WH1516018).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Advanced Control and Optimization for Chemical Processes, Ministry of EducationEast China University of Science and TechnologyShanghaiChina

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