Leveraging Interoperable Data to Improve Training Effectiveness Using the Experience API (XAPI)

  • Jennifer MurphyEmail author
  • Francis Hannigan
  • Michael Hruska
  • Ashley Medford
  • Gabriel Diaz
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9744)


This paper discusses our research efforts aimed at improving the training effectiveness and efficiency of the U.S. Army’s gunnery and rifle marksmanship curriculum. Soldier assessments, typically in the form of final qualifications scores, are insufficient to conduct experimental comparisons required to evaluate training effectiveness. More importantly, this level of performance assessment does not speak to the root cause of the errors soldiers make during training. Using the Experience API (xAPI) specification, learning experiences are represented in terms of activity statements and can be used to track learning that happens both inside and outside of the classroom, enabling the development of robust, persistent student models. Importantly, xAPI data are interoperable across training systems, allowing a student’s performance to be tracked across multiple platforms. Our research demonstrates the utility of xAPI to improve the effectiveness of Army simulation-based training through improved performance assessment capabilities.


Adaptive learning systems Experience API Data interoperability Training effectiveness evaluation 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer Murphy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Francis Hannigan
    • 1
  • Michael Hruska
    • 2
  • Ashley Medford
    • 2
  • Gabriel Diaz
    • 2
  1. 1.Quantum Improvements ConsultingOrlandoUSA
  2. 2.Problem SolutionsJohnstownUSA

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