Effect of Icon Amount and Visual Density on Usability of Smartwatches

  • Fan MoEmail author
  • Shuping Yi
  • Jia Zhou
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9754)


Appropriate design for smartwatches menu on the tiny touchscreen is desired and, hence, this study aims to explore the effect of icon amount and visual density on older adults’ performance and satisfaction. To achieve this goal, an experiment was conducted. A total of 15 older adults participated in this study. The results of this study showed which combination of visual density and icon amount was better on the tiny screen (e.g., 40 mm wide and 40 mm high). First, a small number of icon amount (e.g., 8 icons) was generally better used in smartwatches menu. In that case, both visual density of 4 icons per page and 8 icons per page caused better performance. Second, compared with 1 icon and 8 icons per page, the visual density of 4 icons per page might was the best choice if the number of icon amount was large (e.g., 24 icons and 48 icons). Finally, the study also indicated that older adults’ gestures of wearing smartwatches on the back of wrist, taping with the index finger and closing hand related to better performance.


Smartwatches menu Icon amount Visual density Older adults Users’ gestures 



This work was supported with funding from a National Science Foundation China grant 71401018.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Industrial EngineeringChongqing UniversityChongqingChina

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